AUC Philologica (Acta Universitatis Carolinae Philologica) je akademický časopis publikující jak lingvistické, tak literárně historické a teoretické studie. Nedílnou součástí časopisu jsou i recenze odborných knih a zprávy z akademického prostředí.

Časopis je indexován v databázích CEEOL, DOAJ, EBSCO a ERIH PLUS.

AUC PHILOLOGICA, Vol 2021 No 3 (2021), 79–106

Through the Looking Glass of Intimate Friendship and Common Enemies: Images of Sino–Soviet Relations in Chinese and Soviet Political Cartoons of the 1950s

Mariia Guleva

zveřejněno: 15. 02. 2022


This article examines Sino–Soviet relations in the 1950s through the medium of political cartoons in Manhua and Krokodil, satire magazines published in the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. Images of friendship and enmity produced an intricate narrative about world affairs and the paths of socialism and capitalism. By comparing the stories and visual representations in Krokodil and Manhua, this study underscores the similarities and contradictions existing between the Soviet Union and China in the years before their split. This approach provides an example of two ideological machines working to reflect unexpected shifts in alliances while maintaining a claim on the teleological coherence of socialist development. It also exemplifies the mechanics of visual propaganda under the stress of contradictory policies and purposes.

klíčová slova: political cartoons; Krokodil; Manhua; Sino–Soviet friendship; visual propaganda

reference (112)

1. Altehenger, Jennifer (2013). "A Socialist Satire: Manhua Magazine and Political Cartoon Production in the PRC, 1950-1960." Frontiers of History in China 8:1, 78-103. CrossRef

2. Anon. (1953). Untitled. Krokodil 8, 2.

3. Anon. (1958). "Manhua cankao ziliao zhi yi, Alabo fengtu renqing" 漫画参考资料之一,阿拉伯风土人情 [Manhua Materials for Consideration, Part 1, Arabs' Conditions and Customs]. Manhua 118, 5.

4. Anon. (1959a). "Osennij pejzazh" [Autumn View]. Krokodil 27, 1.

5. Anon. (1959b). "Wanzi qianhong de xianhua, Zangzu minge" 万紫千红的鲜花,藏族民歌 [Colourful Fresh Flowers, Tibetan Folk Songs]. Manhua 137, 10-11.

6. Anon. (1959c). "Yingguo shi de manhua" 英国式的漫画 [Cartoons in the British Style]. Manhua 136, 4-5.

7. Anon. (1960). "Nuhou ba! Feizhou!" 怒吼吧!非洲! [Roar, Africa!]. Manhua 158, 13.

8. Bagdasarian, Artem, Eleonora Barkova, and Sergei Vinogradov (2018). Druzhba naveki: ocherki istorii sotrudnichestva Sovetskogo Sojuza i Kitajskoj Narodnoj Respubliki, 1949-1960 gg. [Eternal Friendship: Notes on the History of Cooperation between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China]. Moscow: ANO "Nauchno-issledovatel'skij institute istorii, ekonomiki i prava".

9. Bazhanov, Evgeni (2013). "Ot druzhby cherez konfrontatsiju k normalizatsii: sovetsko-kitajskie otnoshenia s 1949 i do 1991 g." [From Friendship through Confrontation to Normalization: Soviet-Chinese Relations from 1949 to 1991]. In: A. Lukin (ed.), Rossia i Kitaj: chetyre veka vzaimodejstvia [Russia and China: Four Centuries of Interactions]. Moscow: Ves Mir, 217-98.

10. Bi Keguan 毕克官 (1958). "Senlin jiaoxiangqu" 森林交响曲 [Forest Symphony]. Manhua 120, 1.

11. Brodaty, Lev (1950). "Na poljakh Kitaja" (On the Fields of China). Krokodil 21, 3.

12. Cai Zhenhua 蔡振华 (1957). "Dulesi wei shijie qingnian lianhuanjie jinxing zhunbei gongzuo" 杜勒斯为世界青年联欢节进行准备工作 [Dulles Carries Out Preparatory Work for the World Youth Festival]. Manhua 88, 1.

13. Chi Xing 池星 (1959). "Weiyena shijie qingnian lianhuanjie jianwen" 维也纳世界青年联欢节见闻 [Sights from the World Festival of Youth in Vienna]. Manhua 144, 8-9.

14. Crespi, John A. (2020). Manhua Modernity: Chinese Culture and the Pictorial Turn. Oakland: University of California Press. CrossRef

15. Dittrich, Peter (1956). Untitled. Krokodil 2, 11.

16. Etty, John (2019). Graphic Satire in the Soviet Union: Krokodil's Political Cartoons. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. CrossRef

17. Fang Cheng 方成 (1955). "Dangbuzhu de" 挡不住的 [Can't Hold the Advance]. Manhua 59, 12.

18. Fang Cheng 方成 (1956). "Cuo kan lao huangli" 错看老皇历 [Looked at Last Year's Calendar]. Manhua 72, 1.

19. Fang Cheng 方成 (1959). "Yu hou chun sun" 雨后春笋 [Spring Sprouts after Rain]. Manhua 141, 8.

20. Fang Cheng 方成 (1960). Untitled. Manhua 154, 1.

21. Ganf, Julii (1957). "Suetskij kanal dejstvuet…" [Suez Canal Functions…]. Krokodil 14, 10.

22. Ginsberg, Mary (2013). The Art of Influence: Asian Propaganda. London: The British Museum Press.

23. Golubev, Aleksandr (2018). "Podlinnyj lik zagranitsy": obraz vneshnego mira v sovetskoj politicheskoj karikature, 1922-1941 gg. ["True Face of Foreign Countries": The Image of the Outer World in Soviet Political Cartoons, 1922-1941]. Moscow: Institut rossijskoj istorii RAN.

24. Goriaev, Vitaliy (1950). "V osvobozhdennom Kitae" [In Liberated China]. Krokodil 7, 2.

25. Goriaev, Vitaliy (1952). Untitled. Krokodil 36, 6.

26. Goriaev, Vitaliy (1955). Untitled. Krokodil 14, 7.

27. Goriaev, Vitaliy (1958). "Druzhba na vysote" [High Friendship]. Krokodil 29, 4.

28. Graf, Maximilian, and Wolfgang Mueller (2019). "Austria and China, 1949-1989: A Slow Rapprochement." In: Janick Marina Schaufelbuehl, Marco Wyss, and Valeria Zanier (eds.), Europe and China in the Cold War: Exchanges Beyond the Bloc Logic and the Sino-Soviet Split. Leiden: Brill, 19-41.

29. Hua Junwu 华君武 (1960). "Shijie de gao feng" 世界的高峰 [The High Peak of the World]. Manhua 163, 1. CrossRef

30. Jersild, Austin (2014). The Sino-Soviet Alliance: An International History. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

31. Jiang Fan 江帆 (1960). "Youyi chang qing" 友谊长青 [Eternally Young Friendship]. Manhua 154, 4-5.

32. Jiang Yousheng 江有生 and Gao Made 高马得 (1953). "Shi wu qian li" 史无前例 [Unprecedented in History]. Manhua 37, 3.

33. Jiang Yousheng (1957). Untitled. Manhua 100, 1.

34. Jiang Yousheng (1958a). "Dulesi zai wangyuanjing suo jian" 杜勒斯在望远镜所见 [What Dulles Saw through Binoculars]. Manhua 106, 3.

35. Jiang Yousheng (1958b). "Starinnye kitajskie tantsy na novyj lad" [Old Chinese Dances Performed Anew]. Krokodil 27, 3.

36. Jiang Yousheng (1959a). "Chaoguo shenhua" 超过神话 [Exceeding Legends]. Manhua 129, 5.

37. Jiang Yousheng (1959b). Untitled. Manhua 147, 3.

38. Jiang Yousheng (1960). "Heping dedao baozhang" 和平得到保障 [Peace Receives Guarantees]. Manhua 154, 6.

39. Krylov, Andrei (1960). "Na Zemle vesna" [Spring on Earth]. Krokodil 12, 2.

40. Kukryniksy (1957). "Prygnul by na konia, da nozhki korotki" [I Would Have Jumped onto the Horse, But My Legs Are Short]. Krokodil 7, 16.

41. Kukryniksy (1958). "Ne vidit dal'she svoego nosa" [He Does Not See beyond His Nose]. Krokodil 24, 1.

42. Le Xiaoying 乐小英 (1959). "Ku jin gan lai" 苦尽甘来 [Suffering Is Over, Happiness Is Here]. Manhua 151, 7.

43. Lee, Christopher J. (2010). "Introduction." In: Christopher J. Lee (ed.), Making a World after Empire: The Bandung Moment and Its Political Afterlives. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1-42. CrossRef

44. Lenoe, Matthew (2004). Closer to the Masses: Stalinist Culture, Social Revolution, and Soviet Newspapers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

45. Leo, Boris (1956). "Ne uderzhat'!" [Can't Hold!]. Krokodil 27, 10.

46. Li Cunsong 李寸松 (1958). "San xing rang wei" 三星让位 [Three Stars Give Way]. Manhua 114, 1.

47. Liang Hong 良鸿 (1950). Untitled. Manhua 7, 14.

48. Lisogorskiy, Naum (1959). "A im ne nravitsja…" [And They Don't Like It…]. Krokodil 21, 5.

49. Lisuoge'ersiji 李素戈尔斯基 (Naum Lisogorskiy) (1959). "Mou xie Meiguoren zai Niuyue Sulian zhanlanhui" 某些美国人在纽约苏联展览会 [Some Americans at the Soviet Exhibition in New York]. Manhua 147, 5.

50. Liu Lude 刘路得 (1955). "Shibai de jingtou" 失败的镜头 [Defeated Lens]. Manhua 54, 3.

51. Liu Yongfei 刘庸非 (1959). "Xing shi" 醒狮 [Woken Lion]. Manhua 136, 6.

52. Lüthi, Lorenz M. (2008). The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

53. Mayakovsky, Vladimir (1938). Grozny smekh [Formidable Laughter]. Moscow: Iskusstvo.

54. McKenna, Kevin J. (2001). All the News Fit to Print: Changing Images of the U.S. in Pravda Political Cartoons, 1917-1991. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

55. Mi Gu 米谷 (1956). "Suyishi yunhe de fu zhou" 苏彝士运河的复舟 [A Turned-over Boat in the Suez Canal]. Manhua 71, 5.

56. Mi Gu 米谷 (1957a). "Golos Ameriki" [The Voice of America]. Krokodil 13, 10.

57. Mi Gu 米谷 (1957b). "Yi dan yi dan" 以弹易蛋 [Bombs Instead of Eggs]. Manhua 89, 5.

58. Mi Gu 米谷 (1958). "Heping de ju yin" 和平的巨音 [The Great Sound of Peace]. Manhua 119, 1.

59. Mi Gu 米谷 (1960). Untitled. Manhua 164, 1.

60. Miao Di 苗地 (1956). "Qinlüe zhe gun chu qu!" 侵略者滚出去! [Aggressors, Get Out!]. Manhua 77, 1.

61. Miao Di 苗地 (1957). Untitled. Manhua 100, 3.

62. Miao Yintang 缪印堂 (1956). "Jiang long" 降龙 [Tamed Dragon]. Manhua 76, 1.

63. Miao Yintang 缪印堂 (1957). "Cherny drakon stanet elektricheskim" [Black Dragon Will Become Electric]. Manhua 7, 12.

64. Min, Anchee, Duo Duo, and Stephan R. Landsberger (eds.). (2015). Chinese Propaganda Posters. Koeln: Taschen.

65. Pechatnov, Vladimir (2001). "Exercise in Frustration: Soviet Foreign Propaganda in the Early Cold War, 1945-47." Cold War History 1:2, 1-27. CrossRef

66. Rossabi, Morris (2013). "Sino-Mongol Border: From Conflict to Precarious Resolution." In: Bruce A. Elleman, Stephen Kotkin, and Clive Schofield (eds.), Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 169-89.

67. Rotov, Konstantin (1957). Untitled. Krokodil 12, 3.

68. Samoylov, Nikolay (2020). "Visual Images of the Soviet Union and the West in China (1950s-1960s)." In: Gotelind Müller and Nikolay Samoylov (eds.), Chinese Perceptions of Russia and the West: Changes, Continuities, and Contingencies during the Twentieth Century. Heidelberg: CrossAsia-eBooks, 365-87. CrossRef

69. Semenov, Ivan, and Mark Abramov (1958). "Velikaja kitajskaja stena" [The Great Wall of China]. Krokodil 26, 1.

70. Semenov, Ivan (1957). Untitled. Krokodil 30, 4-5.

71. Semenov, Ivan (1959). "… I soprovozhdajushchie ich litsa" [… And the Entourage]. Krokodil 26, 16.

72. Shen Tongheng 沈同衡 (1957). "Liba zha de jin, ye gou zuan bu jin" 篱笆扎得紧,野狗钻不进 [The Fence is Closely Fitted, the Wild Dog Won't Get in]. Manhua 83, 3.

73. Shen Zhihua 沈志华 (2003). Sulian zhuanjia zai Zhongguo, 1948-1960 苏联专家在中国,1948 - 1960 [Soviet Specialists in China, 1948-1960]. Beijing: Zhongguo guoji guangbo chubanshe.

74. Shen Zhihua (2007). "Tongzhi jia xiongdi, 1949-1959" 同志加兄弟,1949 - 1959 [Comrades and Brothers, 1949-1959]. In: Shen Zhihua (ed.), Zhong Su guanxi shigang 中苏关系史纲 [History of Sino-Soviet relations]. Beijing: Xinhua Chubanshe, 98-249.

75. Su Guang 苏光 (1955). "Da shi suo qu wu neng wei li 大势所趋无能为力" [The General Situation is Such that Nothing Can Be Done]. Manhua 58, 12.

76. Sun Qiming 孙其明 (2002). Zhong Su guanxi shimo 中苏关系始末 [History of Sino-Soviet Relations]. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe.

77. Tian Ma 天马 (1959). "Chou ju kai chang" 丑剧开场 [The Beginning of a Farce]. Manhua 147, 8.

78. Tie Yi 铁一 (1960). "Youyi yuanwuqu" 友谊圆舞曲 [The Waltz of Friendship]. Manhua 154, 3.

79. Val'k, Genrikh (1959). "Ustanovilas' khoroshaja, letnaja pogoda" [The Weather is Good and Suitable for Flights]. Krokodil 23, 1.

80. Wang Mi 王米 (1956). "Chun nuan bing jie dong he kai" 春暖冰解冻河开 [Spring Warmth Melts Ice and Opens Rivers]. Manhua 68, 3.

81. Wei Qimei 韦启美 (1960). "Zai Jialebihai de bu jing zhe" 在加勒比海的捕鲸者 [A Whaler in the Caribbean Sea]. Manhua 164, 4.

82. Westad, Odd Arn, ed. (1998). Brothers in Arms: The Rise and Fall of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1963. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

83. Wu Yuan (Wu Yun 吴耘?) (1955). "S bogatym urozhaem!" [Congratulations on the Large Harvest!]. Krokodil 30, 4.

84. Wu Yun (1955). "Chonggao de youyi" 崇高的友谊 [Lofty Friendship]. Manhua 59, 5.

85. Wu Yun (1956). Untitled. Manhua 71, 4.

86. Wu Yun (1958). Untitled. Krokodil 30, 4.

87. Wu Yun (1960). "Dong feng deyi ying chunnian" 东风得意迎春年 [East Wind Proudly Greets Spring Years]. Manhua 152, 10-11.

88. Xiewasiyangjienuofu 谢瓦斯扬捷诺夫 (Sevastianov?) (1956). "Gaodu de youyi" 高度的友谊 [High Friendship]. Manhua 72, 8.

89. Ye Miao 叶苗 (1954). "Mosike-Beijing" 莫斯科¬ - - 北京 [Moscow-Beijing]. Manhua 40, 6.

90. Ye Miao 叶苗 (1958). Untitled fragment. Manhua 125, 11.

91. Ye Qianyu 叶浅予 (1955). Untitled. Manhua 58, 6. CrossRef

92. Ye Qianyu 叶浅予 (1959). "Meiguo he Lading Meizhou guanxi tujie" 美国和拉丁美洲关系图解 [Scheme of Relations between (the United States of) America and Latin America]. Manhuai 136, 10-11.

93. Ye Xueqian 叶学潜 (1959). "Lu yu zou yu kuan" 路愈走愈宽 [The Farther We Go, the Wider is the Road]. Manhua 148, 3.

94. Yefimov, Boris (1950). Untitled. In Krokodil 7, 16.

95. Yefimov, Boris (1955). Untitled. Krokodil 22, 16.

96. Yefimov, Boris (1956a). "Gde-to v Azii…" [Somewhere in Asia …]. Krokodil 22, 10.

97. Yefimov, Boris (1956b). "Smena flaga nad Suetskim kanalom" [Change of Flag over the Suez Canal]. Krokodil 24, 16.

98. Yefimov, Boris (1956c). "Zaokeanskij plagiator" [Plagiarist from Overseas]. Krokodil 28, 16.

99. Yefimov, Boris (1960). "Chas probil!" [The Clock Has Struck!]. Krokodil 11, 7.

100. Ying Tao 英韬 and Miao Di (1959). "Kuai ma cheng dong feng" 快马乘东风 [Fast Horse Rides East Wind]. Manhua 131, 10-11.

101. You Yunchang 游允常 (1959). "Xian ren quan" 仙人拳 [Magical People's Fists]. Manhua 150, 17.

102. Zelenskii, B. (1952). Untitled. Krokodil 10, 9.

103. Zhang Benshan 张本善 and Gu Pu 顾朴 (1959). "Palankin i vosem' nosil'shchikov" [Palanquin and Eight Carriers]. Krokodil 27, 3.

104. Zhang Ding 张仃 (1956). "Jin ri Bali" 今日巴黎 [Today's Paris]. Manhua 73, 6-7.

105. Zhang Ding 张仃 (1958). "Dong feng yadao xi feng" 东风压倒西风 [East Wind Suppresses West Wind]. Manhua 109, 1, 16.

106. Zhang Guangyu 张光宇 (1959). Untitled. Manhua 129, 1, 20.

107. Zhang Leping 张乐平 (1959). "Xu ri gao sheng" 旭日高升 [The Sun is Rising High]. Manhua 147, 20.

108. Zhang Quan 章泉 (1950). "Liang ge zhenying, liang ge jihua" 两个阵营,两种计划 [Two Camps, Two Plans]. Manhua 7, 25.

109. Zhang Shixiang 张世祥 (1959). "Hei'an dalu de guangmang" 黑暗大陆的光芒 [The Light of the Dark Continent]. Manhua 133, 5.

110. Zhang Wenyuan 张文元 (1954). "He jia huanle guo xin nian" 合家欢乐过新年 [Whole Family Happily Meets the New Year]. Manhua 38, 1.

111. Zhao Yannian 赵延年 (1954). "Youyi de yuanzhu" 友谊的援助 [Friendly Help]. Manhua 48, 1.

112. Zhou Lushi 周路石 (1954). Untitled. Manhua 47, 1.

Creative Commons License
Through the Looking Glass of Intimate Friendship and Common Enemies: Images of Sino–Soviet Relations in Chinese and Soviet Political Cartoons of the 1950s is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

vychází: 4 x ročně
cena tištěného čísla: 150 Kč
ISSN: 0567-8269
E-ISSN: 2464-6830

Ke stažení