Orbis scholae je odborný recenzovaný časopis zaměřený na problematiku školního vzdělávání v jeho širších sociokulturních souvislostech. Cílem časopisu je přispět k porozumění školnímu vzdělávání a jeho rozvoji, k řešení problémů praxe a vzdělávací politiky.
ORBIS SCHOLAE, 39–58
A Place Between School and Home: Exploring the Place of Shadow Education in Students’ Academic Lives in the Netherlands
[A Place Between School and Home: Exploring the Place of Shadow Education in Students’ Academic Lives in the Netherlands]
Daury Jansen, Louise Elffers, Monique L. L. Volman
zveřejněno: 03. 11. 2020
Worldwide, the use of private supplementary tutoring, commonly referred to as shadow education, has become increasingly prevalent since the turn of the millennium. Recently, participation rates in the Netherlands have substantially increased. This paper aims to explore the place of shadow education in students’ academic lives by studying the goals and experienced benefits that students identify. Data were collected through 37 semi-structured interviews with tutored students in secondary education in the Netherlands. Our findings indicate that students conceived of shadow education as a skill-building institution to which they turned to for self-study, to receive career support, and to boost their performance. Students’ reflections reveal that shadow education builds upon and extends – but does not replace – learning activities at home and school. Based on our findings, we discuss how shadow education can function as a “third place” between school and home, occupying an increasingly prominent position in students’ academic lives.
Klíčová slova: shadow education; students’ goals; experienced benefits; semi-structured interviews
1. Addi-Raccah, A. (2019). Private tutoring in a high socio-economic secondary school in Israel and pupils' attitudes towards school learning: A double-edged sword phenomenon. British Educational Research Journal, 45(5), 938-960. CrossRef
2. Bisschop, P., van den Berg, E., & van der Ven, K. (2019). Aanvullend en particulier onderwijs [Supplementary and private education]. Utrecht: SEO/Oberon.
3. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. London: Sage.
4. Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring? Paris, France: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning.
5. Bray, M., & Kobakhidze, M. N. (2015). Evolving ecosystems in education: The nature and implications of private supplementary tutoring in Hong Kong. Prospects, 45(4), 465-481. CrossRef
6. Bray, M., & Kwo, O. (2015). Designing and implementing mixed approaches to shadow education research: Experiences and lessons in Hong Kong. In M. Bray, O. Kwo, & B. Jokić (Eds.), Researching private supplementary tutoring: Methodological lessons from diverse cultures (pp. 149-178). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. CrossRef
7. Burman, E., & Miles, S. (2020). Deconstructing supplementary education: from the pedagogy of the supplement to the unsettling of the mainstream. Educational Review, 72(1), 3-22. CrossRef
8. CBS Statistics Netherlands. (2020). Household expenditure on homework assistance. [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/maatwerk/2020/04/uitgaven-van-huishoudens-aan-onderwijsondersteuning.
9. Chan, C., & Bray, M. (2014). Marketised private tutoring as a supplement to regular schooling: Liberal Studies and the shadow sector in Hong Kong secondary education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(3), 361-388. CrossRef
10. Chan, V. N. M. (2019). English private tutoring in Macao: Perceptions of senior secondary three students. ECNU Review of Education, 2(1), 44-63. CrossRef
11. Chih-Hao, C. (2019). Effects of private tutoring on English performance: Evidence from senior high students in Taiwan. International Journal of Educational Development, 68, 80-87. CrossRef
12. de Guzman R.M., Rodriguez S.M., de Castro B.V. (2018) The mediating role of shadow education (SE) participation on goal orientation, study habits, connectedness, and academic performance. In: Tang S., Cheah S. (Eds.), Redesigning Learning for Greater Social Impact (pp. 89-109). Singapore: Springer. CrossRef
13. Elffers, L., Fukkink, R. G., Jansen, D., Helms, R., Timmerman, G., Fix, M., & Lusse, M. (2019). Aanvullend onderwijs: leren en ontwikkelen naast de school [Supplementary education: learning and development next to school]. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.
14. Entrich, S. R. (2015). The decision for shadow education in Japan: students' choice or parents' pressure? Social Science Japan Journal, 18(2), 193-216. CrossRef
15. Entrich, S. R. (2018). Shadow education and social inequalities in Japan: Evolving patterns and conceptual implications. Gewerbestrasse: Springer. CrossRef
16. Forsey, M. (2013). But did it help you get to university? A qualitative study of supplementary education in Western Australia. In J. Aurini, S. Davies, & J. Dierkes (Eds.), Out of the shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education (pp. 171-189). Bingley, Australia: Emerald Group. CrossRef
17. Guill, K., & Bos, W. (2014). Effectiveness of private tutoring in mathematics with regard to subjective and objective indicators of academic achievement. Evidence from a German secondary school sample. Journal for Educational Research Online, 6(1), 34-67.
18. Guill, K., Lüdtke, O., & Köller, O. (2019). Assessing the instructional quality of private tutoring and its effects on student outcomes: Analyses from the German National Educational Panel Study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 282-300. CrossRef
19. Guill, K., Lüdtke, O., & Schwanenberg, J. (2019). A two‐level study of predictors of private tutoring attendance at the beginning of secondary schooling in Germany: The role of individual learning support in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 46, 437-457. CrossRef
20. Hajar, A. (2018). Exploring year 6 pupils' perceptions of private tutoring: Evidence from three mainstream schools in England. Oxford Review of Education, 44(4), 514-531. CrossRef
21. Hajar, A. (2019). The association between private tutoring and access to grammar schools: Voices of Year 6 pupils and teachers in south‐east England. British Educational Research Journal. Advance online publication. doi:10.1002/berj.3587. CrossRef
22. Hallsén, S., & Karlsson, M. (2018). Teacher or friend? Consumer narratives on private supplementary tutoring in Sweden as policy enactment. Journal of Education Policy, 34(5), 631-646. CrossRef
23. Hamid, M. O., Khan, A., & Islam, M. M. (2018). The spread of private tutoring in English in developing societies: Exploring students' perceptions. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 39(6), 868-886. CrossRef
24. Hartmann, S. (2008). "At school we don't pay attention anyway": The informal market of education in Egypt and its implications. Sociologus, 58(1), 27-48. CrossRef
25. Holloway, S. L., & Pimlott‐Wilson, H. (2019). Marketising private tuition: Representations of tutors' competence, entrepreneurial opportunities and service legitimation in home tutoring business manuals. British Educational Research Journal, 46, 205-221. CrossRef
26. Hunter, J., & Cox, A. (2014). Learning over tea! Studying in informal learning spaces. New Library World, 115(1/2), 34-50. CrossRef
27. Jerrim, J., & Sims, S. (2019). Why do so few low‐and middle‐income children attend a grammar school? New evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study. British Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 425-457. CrossRef
28. Kim, Y. C. (2016). Shadow education and the curriculum and culture of schooling in South Korea. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
29. Kim, Y. C., & Jung, J. H. (2019). Worldwide shadow education epidemic: From East Asia to Western Hemisphere. In Y. C. Kim & J. H. Jung, Shadow education as worldwide curriculum studies (pp. 25-60). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
30. Kwo, O., & Bray, M. (2014). Understanding the nexus between mainstream schooling and private supplementary tutoring: Patterns and voices of Hong Kong secondary students. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 403-416. CrossRef
31. Kwok, P. (2004). Examination-oriented knowledge and value transformation in East Asian cram schools. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(1), 64-75. CrossRef
32. Mahmud, R. (2019). Mixed implications of private supplementary tutoring for students' learning: Urban and rural disparities in Bangladesh. International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, 21(1), 61-75. CrossRef
33. Matsuoka, R. (2019). Concerted cultivation developed in a standardised education system. Social Science Research, 77, 161-178. CrossRef
34. Nam, Y., & Chan, K. (2019). The roles of mainstream schooling and shadow education in English language teaching: A case study in Hong Kong. Education Journal, 8(1), 16-26. CrossRef
35. Oldenburg, R. (1999). Great good place. New York, NY: Marlow.
36. Otto, B., & Karbach, J. (2019). The effects of private tutoring on students' perception of their parents' academic involvement and the quality of their parent-child relationship. Educational Psychology, 39(7), 923-940. CrossRef
37. Ozaki, M. (2015). A juku childhood: Children's experiences in juku attendance and its relation to their well-being in Japan [Unpublished PhD dissertation]. Claverton Down: University of Bath.
38. Paramita, S. (2014). "We follow the private tutors not the teachers": An ethnographic insight into educational practices among the students of an Indian city. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(4), 819-840.
39. Park, H., Buchmann, C., Choi, J. & Merry, J. J. (2016) Learning beyond the school walls: Trends and implications. Annual Review of Sociology, 42, 231-252. CrossRef
40. Park, H., Byun, S. Y., & Kim, K. K. (2011). Parental involvement and students' cognitive outcomes in Korea: Focusing on private tutoring. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 3-22. CrossRef
41. Pessoa, A. S. G., Harper, E., Santos, I. S., & Gracino, M. C. D. S. (2019). Using reflexive interviewing to foster deep understanding of research participants' perspectives. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 1-19. CrossRef
42. Purnell, D. (2015). Expanding Oldenburg: Homes as third places. Journal of Place Management and Development, 8(1), 51-62. CrossRef
43. Trent, J. (2016). Constructing professional identities in shadow education: Perspectives of private supplementary educators in Hong Kong. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 15(2), 115-130. CrossRef
44. Tsai, C. C., & Kuo, P. C. (2008). Cram school students' conceptions of learning and learning science in Taiwan. International Journal of Science Education, 30(3), 353-375. CrossRef
45. Yamato, Y., & Zhang, W. (2017). Changing schooling, changing shadow: Shapes and functions of juku in Japan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(3), 329-343. CrossRef
46. Yung, K. W. H. (2015). Learning English in the shadows: Understanding Chinese learners' experiences of private tutoring. TESOL Quarterly, 49(4), 707-732. CrossRef
47. Yung, K. W. H., & Chiu, M. M. (2020). Factors affecting secondary students' enjoyment of English private tutoring: Student, family, teacher, and tutoring. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 1-10. CrossRef
48. Zheng, X., Wang, C., Shen, Z., & Fang, X. (2020). Associations of private tutoring with Chinese students' academic achievement, emotional well-being, and parent-child relationship. Children and Youth Services Review, 112. CrossRef
A Place Between School and Home: Exploring the Place of Shadow Education in Students’ Academic Lives in the Netherlands is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
230 x 157 mm
vychází: 3 x ročně
cena tištěného čísla: 150 Kč