Orbis scholae is an academic journal published by Charles University, Prague. It features articles on school education in the wider socio-cultural context. It aims to contribute to our understanding and the development of school education, and to the reflection of teaching practice and educational policy.
Teaching Science Effectively: A Case Study on Student Verbal Engagement in Classroom Dialogue
Ann-Kathrin Schindler, Alexander Gröschner, Tina Seidel
published online: 01. 02. 2018
The present case study illustrates a teacher who participated in a oneyear, video-based, teacher professional development (TPD) program on classroom dialogue. This study expands the field of research on TPD by presenting the longitudinal results of Laura’s teaching performance, her students’ engagement in classroom dialogue, and their higher order learning perceptions. Additionally, a reflection of her participation in the TPD provides more insights into the role of TPD programs for individual teacher learning. Results revealed that Laura constantly changed her questioning and feedback behavior in terms of providing her students with more questions that foster elaboration of knowledge and feedback, which scaffolds students’ learning processes. As a consequence, more students in Laura’s classroom elaborated on their knowledge, which was reflected by a positive change in student higher order learning perceptions. Her reflection showed that the video tool and a mindful facilitation of the TPD program were of great value for Laura’s positive learning experience.
keywords: classroom dialogue; students’ higher order learning; teacher professional development; video; case study
1. Alexander, R. (2005). Towards dialogic teaching (2nd ed.). London: Dialogos. Bakeman, R. (1997). Observing interaction: An introduction to sequential analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. Borko, H., Jacobs, J. K., Eiteljorg, E., & Pittman, M. E. (2008). Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 417−436. CrossRef
3. Buczynski, S., & Hansen, C. B. (2010). Impact of professional development on teacher practice: Uncovering connections. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 599−607. CrossRef
4. Cazden, C. B. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning (2nd ed.). Portsmouth: Heinemann.
5. Chi, M. (2009). Active-constructive-interactive: A conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1(1), 73−105. CrossRef
6. Chin, C. C. (2006). Classroom interaction in science: Teacher questioning and feedback to students' responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315−1346. CrossRef
7. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning and instruction. Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453−494). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. CrossRef
8. de Corte, E., Verschaffel, L., Entwistle, N., & van Merriënboer, J. (Eds.). (2003). Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimensions. Amsterdam: Pergamon.
9. Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers' professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181−199. CrossRef
10. Donovan, M. S., & Bransford, J. D. (2005). How students learn: Science in the classroom. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
11. Duschl, R. A., & Osborne, J. (2002). Supporting and promoting argumentation discourse in science education. Studies in Science Education, 38(1), 39−72. CrossRef
12. Fishman, B. J., Marx, R. W., Best, S., & Tal, R. T. (2003). Linking teacher and student learning to improve professional development in systematic reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(6), 643−658. CrossRef
13. Furtak, E. M. (2006). The problem with answers: An exploration of guided scientific inquiry teaching. Science Education, 90(3), 453−467. CrossRef
14. Gröschner, A., Seidel, T., Kiemer, K., & Pehmer, A.-K. (2015). Through the lens of teacher professional development components: the "Dialogic Video Cycle" as an innovative program to foster classroom dialogue. Professional Development in Education, 41(4), 729−856. CrossRef
15. Gröschner, A., Seidel, T., Pehmer, A.-K., & Kiemer, K. (2014). Facilitating collaborative teacher learning: The role of "mindfulness" in video-based teacher professional development programs. Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung, 45(3), 273−290. CrossRef
16. Grossman, P. (2005). Research on pedagogical approaches in teacher education. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education (pp. 425−476). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
17. Harks, B., Rakoczy, K., Hattie, J., Besser, M., & Klieme, E. (2014). The effects of feedback on achievement, interest and selfevaluation: The role of feedback's perceived usefulness. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 34(3), 269−290. CrossRef
18. Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning. A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.
19. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review Of Educational Research, 77(1), 81−112. CrossRef
20. Howe, C., & Abedin, M. (2013). Classroom dialogue: A systematic review across four decades of research. Cambridge Journal of Education, 43(3), 325−356. CrossRef
21. Hugener, I., Pauli, C., Reusser, K., Lipowsky, F., Rakoczy, K., & Klieme, E. (2009). Teaching patterns and learning quality in Swiss and German mathematics lessons. Learning and Instruction, 19(1), 66−78. CrossRef
22. Jimenez-Aleixandre, M. P., Rodriguez, A. B., & Duschl, R. A. (2000). "Doing the lesson" or "doing science": Argument in high school genetics. Science Education, 84(6), 757−792. CrossRef
23. Jurik, V., Gröschner, A., & Seidel, T. (2013). How student characteristics affect girls' and boys' verbal engagement in physics instruction. Learning and Instruction(23), 33−42.Klieme, E.,& Rakoczy, K. (2008). Empirische Unterrichtsforschung und Fachdidaktik. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 54(2), 222−237.
24. Kluger, A., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The Effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254−284. CrossRef
25. Kovolainen, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2005). The discursive practice of participation in an elementary classroom community. Instructional Science, 33(3), 213−250. CrossRef
26. Lauer, P. A., Christopher, D. E., Firpo-Triplett, R., & Buchting, F. (2014). The impact of shortterm professional development on participant outcomes: A review of the literature. Professional development in education, 40(2), 207−227. CrossRef
27. Lee, Y., & Kinzie, M. (2012). Teacher question and student response with regard to cognition and language use. Instructional Science, 40(6), 857−874. CrossRef
28. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
29. Lipowsky, F., Rakoczy, K., Pauli, C., Drollinger-Vetter, B., Klieme, E., & Reusser, K. (2009). Quality of geometry instruction and its short-term impact on students' understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem. Learning and Instruction, 19(6), 527−537. CrossRef
30. Mercer, N. (2008). The seeds of time: Why classroom dialogue needs a temporal analysis. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17(1), 33−59. CrossRef
31. Mercer, N., & Dawes, L. (2014). The study of talk between teachers and students, from the 1970s until the 2010s. Oxford Review of Education, 40(4), 430−445. CrossRef
32. Mercer, N., & Littleton, K. (2007). Dialogue and the development of children's thinking. A sociocultural approach. New York: Routledge
33. Mercer, N., Wegerif, R., & Dawes, L. (1999). Children's talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 25(1), 95−111. CrossRef
34. Michaels, S., O'Connor, C., & Resnick, L. B. (2008). Deliberative discourse idealized and realized: Accountable talk in the classroom and in civic life. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 27(4), 283−297. CrossRef
35. OECD. (2007). PISA 2006: Science competencies for tomorrow's world. Paris: OECD. CrossRef
36. Oliveira, A. W. (2010). Improving teacher questioning in science inquiry discussions through professional development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 422−453. CrossRef
37. Opfer, V. D., Pedder, D. G., & Lavicza, Z. (2011). The role of teachers' orientation to learning in professional development and change: A national study of teachers in England. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 443−453. CrossRef
38. Osborne, J. (2010). Arguing to learn in science: The role of collaborative, critical discourse. Science, 328(5977), 463−466. CrossRef
39. Osborne, J., Simon, S., Christodoulou, A., Howell-Richardson, C., & Richardson, K. (2013). Learning to argue: A study of four schools and their attempt to develop the use of argumentation as a common instructional practice and its impact on students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(3), 315−347. CrossRef
40. Pehmer, A. K., Gröschner, A., & Seidel, T. (2015a). Fostering and scaffolding student engage- 33 ment in productive classroom discourse: Teachers' practice changes and reflections in light of teacher professional development. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 7, 12−27. CrossRef
41. Pehmer, A.-K., Gröschner, A., & Seidel, T. (2015b). How teacher professional development on productive classroom dialogue affects students' higher order learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 47, 108−119. CrossRef
42. Pehmer, A.-K., Kiemer, K., & Gröschner, A. (2014). Produktive Lehrer-Schüler-Kommunikation: ein Kategoriensystem zur Erfassung Produktiver Gesprächsführung im Klassengespräch und in Schülerarbeitsphasen. München: TUM School of Education.
43. Pennings, H. J. M., van Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., Claessens, L., van der Want, A., & Brekelmans, M. (2014). Real-time teacher-student interactions: A dynamic systems approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37(1), 183−193. CrossRef
44. Ramm, G., Prenzel, M., Baumert, J., Blum, W., Lehmann, R., Leutner, D., … Schiefele, U. (2006). PISA 2003. Dokumentation der Erhebungsinstrumente. Münster: Waxmann.
45. Resnick, L. B., Michaels, S., & O'Connor, C. (2010). How (well-structured) talk builds the mind. In R. Sternberg & D. Preiss (Eds.), From genes to context: New discoveries about learning from educational research and their applications. New York: Springer. Rimmele, R. (2002). Videograph. Kiel: IPN.
46. Santagata, R. (2009). Designing video-based professional development for mathematics teachers in low-performing schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 38−51. CrossRef
47. Seidel, T., & Prenzel, M. (2006). Stability of teaching patterns in physics instruction: Findings from a video study. Learning and Instruction, 16(3), 228−240. CrossRef
48. Seidel, T., Prenzel, M., Duit, R. & Lehrke, M. (Eds.). (2003). Technischer Bericht zur Videostudie Lehr-Lern-Prozesse im Physikunterricht". Kiel: Universität, Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften.
49. Seidel, T., Prenzel, M., & Kobarg, M. (Eds.). (2005). How to run a video study: Technical report of the IPN Video Study. Münster: Waxmann.
50. Sherin, M. G., & Han, S. Y. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 163−183. CrossRef
51. Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers' professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20−37. CrossRef
52. Tripp, T., & Rich, P. J. (2012). The influence of video analysis on the process of teacher change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(5), 728−739. CrossRef
53. van de Pol, J., & Elbers, E. (2013). Scaffolding student learning: A micro-analysis of teacher−student interaction. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2(1), 32−41. CrossRef
54. Van den Bergh, L., Ros, A., & Beijaard, D. (2014). Improving teacher feedback during active learning effects of a professional development program. American Educational Research Journal, 51(4), 772−809. CrossRef
55. van Es, E. A. (2012). Examining the development of a teacher learning community: The case of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(2), 182−192. CrossRef
56. van Es, E. A., Tunney, J., Goldsmith, L., & Seago, N. (2014). A framework for the facilitation of teachers' analysis of video. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(4), 340−356. CrossRef
57. Vermunt, J. D. (1996). Metacognitive, cognitive and affective aspects of learning styles and strategies: a phenomenographic analysis. Higher Education, 31(1), 25−50. CrossRef
58. Vermunt, J. D., & Verloop, N. (2000). Dissonance in students' regulation of learning processes. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 15(1), 75−89. CrossRef
59. Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Alyson, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 90−91. CrossRef
60. Voerman, L., Meijer, P., Korthagen, F., & Simons, R. (2012). Types and frequencies of feedback interventions in classroom interaction in secondary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1107−1115. CrossRef
61. Waldrip, B., Prain, V., & Sellings, P. (2013). Explaining Newton's laws of motion: Using student reasoning through representations to develop conceptual understanding. Instructional Science, 41(1), 165−189. CrossRef
62. Walshaw, M., & Anthony, G. (2008). The teacher's role in classroom discourse: A review of recent research into mathematics classrooms. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 516−551. CrossRef
63. Webb, N. M., Franke, M. L., Ing, M., Wong, J. C., Fernandes, C., Shin, N., & Turrou, A. C. (2014). Engaging with others' mathematical ideas: Interrelationships among student participation, teachers' instructional practices, and learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 63, 79−93. CrossRef
64. Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 315−327). New York: Macmillan.
65. Wells, G., & Arauz, R. M. (2006). Dialogue in the classroom. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(3), 379−428. CrossRef
66. Wragg, E. C., & Brown, G. (2001). Questioning in the secondary school. London: Routledge Falmer.
67. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51−59. CrossRef
Teaching Science Effectively: A Case Study on Student Verbal Engagement in Classroom Dialogue is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
230 x 157 mm
periodicity: 3 x per year
print price: 150 czk