AUC GEOGRAPHICA

AUC GEOGRAPHICA

AUC Geographica (Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geographica) is a scholarly academic journal continuously published since 1966 that publishes research in the broadly defined field of geography: physical geography, geo-ecology, regional, social, political and economic geography, regional development, cartography, geoinformatics, demography and geo-demography.

AUC Geographica also publishes articles that contribute to advances in geographic theory and methodology and address the questions of regional, socio-economic and population policy-making in Czechia.

Periodical twice yearly.
Release dates: June 30, December 31

All articles are licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0), have DOI and are indexed in CrossRef database.

AUC Geographica is covered by the following services: EBSCO, GeoBibline, SCOPUS, Ulrichsweb and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

The journal has been covered in the SCOPUS database since 1975 – today
https://www.scopus.com/source/sourceInfo.uri?sourceId=27100&origin=recordpage

The journal has been selected for coverage in Clarivate Analytics products and services. Beginning with V. 52 (1) 2017, this publication will be indexed and abstracted in Emerging Sources Citation Index.

The journal has been indexed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MSHE) on the list of scientific journals recommended for authors to publish their articles. ICI World of Journals; Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geographica.

Scopus Journal Metric

SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) (2017): 0.344
SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper) (2017): 0.683
CiteScore (2017): 0.71

The journal is archived in Portico.

AUC GEOGRAPHICA, 131–143

Patents, exports and technological specialization at the state level in Germany

Jana Vlčková, Zuzana Stuchlíková

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/23361980.2021.7
zveřejněno: 30. 04. 2021

Abstract

Germany is a highly innovative country with large regional differences, both in economic performance and innovation potential. This paper focuses on the knowledge production and technological specialization at the state level in Germany and how it affects the exports of individual states. We measured the technological specialization based on average relatedness between patent classes. We demonstrated that technological specialization increased between 1988–1992 and 1998–2002 in most German states, whereas between 2008 and 2012 it slightly declined or remained stable in all states except Saarland and Bremen. Highly innovative states, such as Bayern, as well as the least innovative Sachsen-Anhalt, belong among the most specialized states. Therefore, there is no obvious trend indicating that large specialization is related to higher innovativeness or vice versa. In accordance with other studies, we found that having a higher number of patent applications increases exports. This is especially valid at the state level. However, within the seven examined industrial categories, the relationship is weaker. Apart from patenting, we also estimated other R&D indicators such as Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD), R&D personnel and technological specialization. Whilst the higher relative numbers of R&D personnel increase the volume of exports relative to regional GDP, in the case of GERD, the results were inconclusive. Furthermore, a higher technological specialization measured by average relatedness between patent classes negatively affects exports. This finding is surprising, and other measures of specialization in different regions should be tested to support it.

Klíčová slova: innovation; patents; regional specialization; Germany; exports

reference (86)

1. Acs, Z., Audretsch, D. B. (1989): Patents as a measure of innovative activity. Kyklos 42(2), 171-180. CrossRef

2. Aghion, P., Howitt, P. (1990): A model of growth through creative destruction. No. w3223, National Bureau of Economic Research. CrossRef

3. Almus, M., Czarnitzki, D. (2003): The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 21(2), 226-236. CrossRef

4. Altenburg, T., Schmitz, H., Stamm, A. (2008): Breakthrough? China's and India's transition from production to innovation. World Development 36(2), 325-344. CrossRef

5. Amable, B., Verspagen, B. (1995): The role of technology in market shares dynamics. Applied Economics 27(2), 197-204. CrossRef

6. Amiti, M. (1999): Specialization patterns in Europe. Review of World Economics 135(4), 573-593. CrossRef

7. Andersson, M., Ejermo, O. (2008): Technology specialization and the magnitude and quality of exports. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 17(4), 355-375. CrossRef

8. Archibugi, D., Pianta, M. (1992): The technological specialization of advanced countries: A report to the EEC on international science and technology activities. Springer Science & Business Media.

9. Asheim, B. T., Gertler, M. S. (2005): The Geography of Innovation: Regional Innovation Systems. In: Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D. C. (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford University Press. CrossRef

10. Audretsch, D. B., Feldman, M. P. (1996): R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. American Economic Review 86(3), 630-640, https://www.jstor.org/stable/2118216.

11. Balland, P. A., Boschma, R. A., Crespo, J., Rigby, D. L. (2017): Smart specialization policy in the EU: relatedness, knowledge complexity and regional diversification. Knowledge Complexity and Regional Diversification (June 21, 2017). CrossRef

12. Balland, P.A., Jara-Figueroa, C., Petralia, S., Steijn, M., Rigby, D., Hidalgo, C. A. (2020): Complex economic activities concentrate in large cities. Nature Human Behaviour 4(3), 248-254. CrossRef

13. Beise, M., Stahl, H. (1999): Public research and industrial innovations in Germany. Research Policy 28(4), 397-422. CrossRef

14. Bernard, A. B., Jensen, B. J. (1999): Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both? Journal of international economics 47(1), 1-25. CrossRef

15. Bič, J. (2007): Competitiveness of the EU and New member States. Proceedings of International Conference. Increasing Competitiveness or Regional, National and International Markets. VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 1-10.

16. Blind, K., Edler, J. Frietsch, R., Schmoch, U. (2006): Motives to patent: Empirical evidence from Germany. Research Policy 35(5), 655-672. CrossRef

17. Blind, K., Jungmittag, A. (2005): Trade and the Impact of Innovations and Standards: The Case of Germany and the UK. Applied Economics 37(12), 1385-1398. CrossRef

18. Boschma, R., Balland, P. A., Kogler, D. F. (2015): Relatedness and technological change in cities: the rise and fall of technological knowledge in US metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2010. Industrial and Corporate Change 24(1), 223-250. CrossRef

19. Boschma, R., Minondo, A., Navarro, M. (2012): Related variety and regional growth in Spain. Papers in Regional Science 91(2), 241-256. CrossRef

20. Boschma, R., Frenken, K. (2011): The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography 11(2), 295-307. CrossRef

21. Brülhart, M., Traeger, R. (2003): An account of geographic concentration patterns in Europe. Regional Science and Urban Economics 35(6), 597-624. CrossRef

22. Chang, C. L., Chen, S. P., McAleer, M. (2013): Globalization and knowledge spillover: international direct investment, exports and patents. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 22(4), 329-352. CrossRef

23. Cohen, W. M., Goto, A., Nagata, A., Nelson, R. R., Walsh, J. P. (2002): R&D spillovers, patents and the incentives to innovate in Japan and the United States. Research Policy 31(8), 1349-1367. CrossRef

24. Dischinger, M., Riedel, N. (2008): Corporate Taxes, Profit Shifting and the Location of Intangibles within Multinational Firms. Discussion Papers in Economics 2008-11.

25. EPO (2020): Patent Statistics 2019. European Patent Office, https://www.epo.org/about-us/annual-reports-statistics/statistics.html.

26. Ernst, H. (2001): Patent applications and subsequent changes of performance: evidence from time-series cross-section analyses on the firm level. Research Policy 30(1), 143-157. CrossRef

27. European Commission (2016b): RIO Country Report 2016: Germany, https://rio.jrc.ec.europa.eu/en/file/10849/download?token=H_FUucsh.

28. European Commission (2018): RIO Country Report 2017: Germany, https://rio.jrc.ec.europa.eu/country-analysis/Germany/country-report.

29. European Commission (2019a): European Innovation Scoreboard 2019 - Main Report, https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/38781.

30. European Commission (2019b): European Innovation Scoreboard 2019 - Regional Innovation Scoreboard: Germany, https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/35927.

31. European Commission (2020a): Science, Research and Innovation Performance of the EU 2020 Report, https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/science-research-and-innovation-performance-eu-2020_en.

32. European Commission (2020b): European Innovation Scoreboard 2020, https://interactivetool.eu/EIS/index.html.

33. EUROSTAT (2018): Regions in the European Union - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS 2016/EU-28, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-manuals-and-guidelines/-/KS-GQ-18-007.

34. EUROSTAT (2020a): Patent applications to the European patent office (EPO) by priority year. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/tsc00009/default/table?lang=en.

35. EUROSTAT (2020b): Regions. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/regions/data/database.

36. Fagerberg, J. (1996): Technology and competitiveness. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 12(3), 39-51. CrossRef

37. Feldman, M. P. (1994): The geography of innovation (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media. CrossRef

38. Foray, D., David, P. A., Hall, B. (2009): Smart specialisation-the concept. Knowledge economists policy brief 9(85), 100.

39. Frenken, K., van Oort, F., Verburg, T. (2007): Related variety, unrelated variety and regional economic growth. Regional Studies 41(5), 685-697. CrossRef

40. Frietsch, R., Neuhäusler, P., Jung, T., Van Looy, B. (2014): Patent indicators for macroeconomic growth - the value of patents estimated by export volume. Technovation 34(9), 546-558. CrossRef

41. Griliches, Z. (1998): R&D and productivity. National Bureau of Economic Research Books.

42. Grossman, G., Helpman, E. (1991): Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. MA, MIT Press, Cambridge.

43. Hausmann, R., Hidalgo, C., Bustos, S., Coscia, M., Chung, S., Jimenez, J., Yildrim, M. (2011): The Atlas of Economic Complexity. MA, Puritan Press, Cambridge.

44. Hausmann, R., Hwang, J., Rodrik, D. (2007): What you export matters. Journal of Economic Growth 12, 1-25. CrossRef

45. Hidalgo, C. A., Hausmann, R. (2009): The building blocks of economic complexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(26), 10570-10575. CrossRef

46. Hidalgo, C. A., Klinger, B., Barabasi, A.-L., Hausmann, R. (2007): The product space conditions the development of nations. Science 317(5837), 482-487. CrossRef

47. Hummels, D., Ishii, J., Yi, K.-M. (2001): The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade. Journal of International Economics 54 (1), 75-96. CrossRef

48. Jacobs, J. (1969): The economy of Cities. Vintage, Illustrated edition (February 12, 1970).

49. Kogler, D. F., Essletzbichler, J., Rigby, D. L. (2017): The evolution of specialization in the EU15 knowledge space. Journal of Economic Geography 17(2), 345-373. CrossRef

50. Kogler, D. F., Rigby, D. L., Tucker, I. (2013): Mapping knowledge space and technological relatedness in US cities. European Planning Studies 21(9), 1374-1391. CrossRef

51. Lachenmaier, S., Wößmann, L. (2006): Does innovation cause exports? Evidence from exogenous innovation impulses and obstacles using German micro data. Oxford Economic Papers 58(2), 317-350. CrossRef

52. Leydesdorff, L., Fritsch, M. (2006): Measuring the knowledge base of regional innovation systems in Germany in terms of a Triple Helix dynamics. Research Policy 35(10), 1538-1553. CrossRef

53. Maraut, S., Dernis, H., Webb, C., Spiezia, V., Guellec, D. (2008): The OECD REGPAT Database: A Presentation. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Paper 2008/2, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECD, Paris, www.oecd.org/sti/working-papers.

54. Marshall, A. (1890): The principles of economics; An introductory volume. 1 (First ed.). London: Macmillan. Retrieved 2012-12-07, https://socialsciences.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/marshall/prin/index.html.

55. Martin, R, Sunley, P. (2007): Complexity thinking and evolutionary economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography 7(5), 573-601. CrossRef

56. Maskell, P., Malmberg, A. (1999): Localised learning and industrial competitiveness. Cambridge Journal of Economics 23(2), 167-185. CrossRef

57. McCann, P., Ortega-Argilés, R. (2015): Smart specialization, regional growth and applications to European Union cohesion policy. Regional Studies 49(8), 1291-1302. CrossRef

58. Neffke, F., Henning, M., Boschma, R. (2011): How do regions diversify over time? Industry relatedness and the development of new growth paths in regions. Economic Geography 87(3), 237-265. CrossRef

59. Nurton, J. (2020): Patenting trends in renewable energy. WIPO Magazine, March 2020, https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2020/01/article_0008.html.

60. OECD (2009): OECD Patent Statistics Manual. Paris: OECD Publishing.

61. OECD (2013): Innovation-driven Growth in Regions: The Role of Smart Specialisation. http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/smart-specialisation.pdf#page113.

62. OECD (2017a): Innovation and technology statistics. https://data.oecd.org/innovation-and-technology.htm.

63. OECD (2017b): Highlights from the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2017: Germany. https://www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard.htm.

64. OECD (2018): REGPAT Database. March 2018. ftp://prese:Patents@ftp.oecd.org/REGPAT_201803/.

65. OECD (2020a): Triadic patent families (indicator). CrossRef

66. OECD (2020b): Main Science and Technology Indicators. 2019(2), OECD Publishing, Paris. CrossRef

67. OECD (2020c): Gross domestic spending on R&D (indicator). CrossRef

68. Pavitt, K. (1982): R&D, patenting and innovative activities: a statistical exploration. Research Policy 11(1), 33-51. CrossRef

69. Peters, B. (2008): Innovation and firm performance: An empirical investigation for German firms. 38, Springer Science & Business Media.

70. Plümper, T., Graff, M. (2001): Export specialization and economic growth. Review of International Political Economy 8(4), 661-688. CrossRef

71. Polanyi, M. (1966): The tacit dimension. Doubleday, New York.

72. Rigby, D. L, Essletzbichler, J. (2007): Exploring evolutionary economic geographies. Journal of Economic Geography 7(5), 549-571. CrossRef

73. Rodríguez-Pose, A., Di Cataldo, M. (2015): Quality of government and innovative performance in the regions of Europe. Journal of Economic Geography 15(4), 673-706. CrossRef

74. Rosenberg, N. (1982): Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge University Press. CrossRef

75. Sanyal, P. (2004): The role of innovation and opportunity in bilateral OECD trade performance. Review of World Economics 140(4), 634. CrossRef

76. Sejkora, J., Sankot, O. (2017): Comparative advantage, economic structure and growth: The case of Senegal. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 20(1), 1-9. CrossRef

77. Statistisches Bundesamt (2018): Außenhandel nach Bundesländern https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Wirtschaft/Aussenhandel/Tabellen/ausfuhr-bundeslaender-ab1970.pdf?__blob=publicationFile.

78. Storper, M. (1997): The regional world: territorial development in a global economy. Guilford Press.

79. Suedekum, J. (2006): Concentration and specialization trends in Germany since reunification. Regional Studies 40(8), 861-873. CrossRef

80. Timmer, M. P., Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., Stehrer, R., De Vries, G. J. (2015): An illustrated user guide to the world input-output database: the case of global automotive production. Review of International Economics 23(3), 575-605. CrossRef

81. Vlčková, J., Kaspříková, N., Vlčková, M. (2018): Technological relatedness, knowledge space and smart specialisation: The case of Germany. Moravian Geographical Reports 26(2), 95-108. CrossRef

82. Vlčková, J. (2015): Can exports be used as an indicator of technological capabilities of countries. Geografie 120(3), 314-329. CrossRef

83. Wakelin, K. (1998): Innovation and export behaviour at the firm level. Research Policy 26(7), 829-841. CrossRef

84. Whittle, A., Kogler, D. F. (2020): Related to what? Reviewing the literature on technological relatedness: Where we are now and where can we go? Papers in Regional Science 99(1), 97-113. CrossRef

85. WIPO (2019a): World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019. https://www.wipo.int/publications/en/details.jsp?id=4464&plang=EN.

86. WIPO (2019b). Global Innovation Index 2019 - Germany. https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_gii_2019/de.pdf.

Creative Commons License
Patents, exports and technological specialization at the state level in Germany is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

210 x 297 mm
vychází: 2 x ročně
cena tištěného čísla: 200 Kč
ISSN: 0300-5402
E-ISSN: 2336-1980

Ke stažení