ORBIS SCHOLAE
ORBIS SCHOLAE

Orbis scholae is an academic journal published by Charles University, Prague. It features articles on school education in the wider socio-cultural context. It aims to contribute to our understanding and the development of school education, and to the reflection of teaching practice and educational policy.

ORBIS SCHOLAE, Vol 9 No 3 (2015), 39–51

Výuka čtenářských strategií v zahraničí – teorie, trendy, programy a metody

[Reading Strategy Instruction − International Theories, Trends, Programmes and Methods]

Ladislava Whitcroft

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/23363177.2016.3
published online: 01. 02. 2018

abstract

Tato teoretická studie se zabývá výukou čtenářských strategií neboli záměrných a cílených postupů, které pomáhají čtenářům porozumět různým typům textů. Cílem textu je analýza teorií a výzkumů, na nichž staví výuka čtenářských strategií ve školním prostředí, a porovnání zahraničních programů, které začleňují čtenářské strategie do výuky ve školách. V první části budou přiblíženy principy modelu postupného předávání odpovědnosti (gradual release of responsibility), poskytování opory (scaffolding) během výuky a trendy ve vývoji v přístupu k výuce čtenářských strategií. V druhé části je podrobněji pojednáno o úspěšných zahraničních programech, které integrují výuku čtenářských strategií: CORI a Učíme se navzájem. Analýza těchto programů ukazuje na uplatňování modelu postupného předávání odpovědnosti ve výuce čtenářských strategií. Zároveň je poukázáno na trend ve výuce čtenářských strategií, který staví na vytváření významu textu během diskusí spojených s prací na autentickém úkolu. This theoretical study deals with the instruction of reading strategies, which are defined as deliberate and targeted procedures that enhance readers’ ability to comprehend various type of text. The study aims to analyse theories and research studies that reading strategy instruction in schools builds on. In the first part, the gradual release of responsibility is described together with the principle of instructional scaffolding and trends in the development of reading strategy instruction. The second part focuses on the detailed analysis of successful international programmes that integrate reading strategy instruction: CORI and Reciprocal Teaching. Their analyses reveals that they use the gradual release of responsibility model in reading strategies instruction. The study also points to the trend of creating meaning of text during rich discussions connected with the work on an authentic task.

keywords: CORI; čtenářské strategie; modelování; opora; postupné předávání odpovědnosti; Učíme se navzájem reading strategies; gradual release of responsibility; scaffolding; modelling; CORI; Reciprocal Teaching

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