Interdisciplinary journal focusing primarily on sociological, political science and historical perspectives on the issue of long-term social processes and trends, modernization, globalization tendency and impacts.

The journal creates a broader platform for researches in the historical social sciences. Epistemological field is not strictly bounded, it is also meant to overlap with civilizationalism, cultural sociology and other related fields.

Historical Sociology is Open Access Journal and all published papers are available in the archive section. Open access journal means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

Published by Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press, cooperated with Faculty of Humanities, Charles University in Prague.

Reviewed scientific journal issued twice a year (in June and December).

The journal is abstracted and indexed in CEEOL, CEJSH, DOAJ, EBSCO, Emerging Sources Citation Index, ERIH PLUS, OAJI, recensio.net, Scopus, SSOAR, Ulrichsweb.

The journal is archived in Portico.

HISTORICKÁ SOCIOLOGIE, Vol 14 No 1 (2022), 91–107

Konformita, společenský fenomén projevující se v chování většiny lidí

[Conformity, a social phenomenon manifested in the behaviour of most people]

Ján Mišovič

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/23363525.2022.6
announced: 13. 06. 2022


The manifestations of the public social conformity have caught the interest of authors, especially in recent decades. In past events they are searching for the answer to the question, why does the public, in its majority, adjust to changing political measures, why is it conformal. To get an answer it is required to analyze events, which lead to the adaptation of new conditions, not neccesarily only political ones. The conformity can be characterised both in its narrower and broader concept. In the narrower sense, it is the adjustment of thoughts and opinions, and in the broader sense it´s the adaptation of values and attitudes. Social mechanisms, institutions, community and the social group to which an individual belongs, support the conformity. It is shaped by circumstances of individual’s livelihood, by the conflict of social roles and the influence of the communication. The fundamentals and principles upheld by the prevailing social mechanisms, are aided by the “pressure” of the social group through the social norms and influence of the media. Compliance with said norms leads to their adoption. The media shape the strategic effort of the individual, which manifests itself as conformity in public, but autonomous opinion in privacy. Those who fail to adapt to the conformity avoid it by ignoring social pressure. Autonomous individuals make decisions for a conformist or nonconformist attitude, the compliant ones adapt, therefore they are conformal. At each stage of development of a particular society, it shapes the specific form of social conformity. During the course of history did the manifestation of accepted conformity change along with the portion of conformal public in any particular society. We can evaluate its effects based on whether they contribute to balancing of social interactions, confirmation of generally accepted values and principles vital for both the majority as well as marginalized social groups, while informing agendas of political, economic, medial and other elites.

keywords: conformity; society; social group; standards; information influence

references (76)

1. Asch, Solomon [1952]. Effects of group pressures upon the modification and distortion of judgements. In. Swanson, Gery, E. - Newcomb, Theodore - Hartley, Eugene, I. (eds.). Reading in social psychology. New York: Holt, Reinhard, Winston.

2. Asch, Solomon [1956]. Studies of independence and conformity: A minority against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs. (70) 9. CrossRef

3. Bakalář, Petr [2018]. Manuál moderního nonkonformisty. Hradec Králové: Nakladatelství Milan Hodek.

4. Bauman, Zygmunt [2010]. Modernita a holocaust. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství (SLON).

5. Baumeister, Roy, F. - Leary, Mark, R. [1995]. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin (117) 3. CrossRef

6. Back, Kurt, W. - Bogdonoff, Morton, D. [1964]. Plasma lipid responses to leadership, conformity and deviation. In Leiderman, Herbert, P. - Shapiro, David (eds.). Psychobiological approaches to social behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

7. Boninger, David, S. - Krosnick, Jon, A. - Berent, Mattew, K. [1995]. Origins of attitude importance: Self-interest, social identification and value relevance. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology (68). CrossRef

8. Campbell, Joseph [1998]. Mýty. Legendy dávných věků v našem denním životě. Praha: Pragma.

9. Cialdini, Robert - Reno, Raymond - Kallgren, Carl [1990]. A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (58). CrossRef

10. Cohen, Bernard [1963]. The press and foreign policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

11. CVVM [2017] Naše společnost - květen. Praha: Sociologický ústav a Český sociálněvědní datový archiv SOÚ AV ČR.

12. CVVM [2019a] Naše společnost - květen. Praha: Sociologický ústav a Český sociálněvědní datový archiv SOÚ AV ČR.

13. CVVM [2019b] Naše společnost - říjen. Praha: Sociologický ústav a Český sociálněvědní datový archiv SOÚ AV ČR.

14. Deutsch Morton - Gerard Harold [1955]. A study of normative and informational social influence upon individual judgement. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology (51). CrossRef

15. Festinger, Leon [1953]. An analysis of compliant behavior. In. Sherif, Muzafer - Wilson, Milbourne, O. (eds.). Group relations at the crossroads. New York: Harper.

16. Festinger, Leon [1954]. A theory of social comparison proces. Human Relations (7). CrossRef

17. Festinger, Leon [1963]. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. 2nd Printing. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

18. Fishkin, James, S. [1991]. Democracy and deliberation: New Directions for democratic reform. New Haven: Yale University Press.

19. Foucault, Michel [1996]. Myšlení vnějšku. Praha: Hermann a synové.

20. Gregor, Marek [2017]. Reklamace svobody. Reflex (15).

21. Grey, John [2006]. Kacířství. Eseje proti pokroku a jiným iluzím. Praha: Dokořán.

22. Harari, Yuval, Noah [2013]. Sapiens. Od zvířete k božskému jedinci. Praha: Rozmluvy.

23. Hardin, Curtis, D. - Higgins, Tory [1996]. Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. In. Sorrentino, Richard - Higgins, Tory (eds.). Handbook of motivation and cognition : The interpersonal context. New York: Guilford Press.

24. Heider, Fritz [1946]. Attitudes and cognitive organization. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied (21). CrossRef

25. Hogg, Michael - Turner, John, C. [1987]. Social identity and conformity : A theory of referent informational influence. In. Doise, Willen - Moskovici, Serge (eds.). Current Issue in European social psychology. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambdrige University Press.

26. Horsney, Matthew - Majkut, Louise - Terry, Deborah - McKimmie, Blake [2003]. On being loud and proud: Non-conformity and counter conformity to group norms. Brithis Journal of Social Psychology (42). CrossRef

27. Hubard, Gill - Miller, David [2005]. Arguments Against G 8. London: Pluto Press.

28. Charles, Sébastien [2013]. Paradoxy individualismu. In. Lipovetsky, Gilles. Hypermoderní doba. Praha: Prostor.

29. Janoušek, Jaromír [1968]. Sociální komunikace. Praha: Svoboda.

30. Keller, Jan [2019]. Společnost věčného mládí. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství (SLON).

31. Klapper, Joseph [1966]. The Effects of Mass Communications. In Berelson, Bernard - Janowits, Morris.

32. Reader in Public Opinion and Comunication 2nd Edition. New York- London: The Free Press.

33. Koukolík, František [2015]. Češi. Proč jsme, kdo jsme - a jak dál? Praha: Galen.

34. Koukolík, František [2018]. O lidech a životě. Praha: Galen.

35. Křeček, Stanislav [2019]. Vraťme důstojnost obyčejného života. Právo. 30.5

36. Lane, Robert - Sears, David [1964]. Public Opinion. Englewood Clifs New Jersey: Prentice Hall INC.

37. Lenart, Silvio [1994]. Sharing Political Attitudes. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publication.

38. Lippmann, Walter [2015]. Veřejné mínění. Praha: Portál.

39. Lipovetsky, Gilles [2013]. Hypermoderní doba. Praha: Prostor.

40. Lipovetsky, Gilles [2008]. Éra prázdnoty. Úvahy o současném individualismu. Praha: Prostor.

41. Marcuse, Herbert [1991]. Jednorozměrný člověk. Praha: Naše vojsko.

42. Manstead, Anthony [2010]. The role of moral norm in the attitude-behavior relation. In. Terry, Deborah -

43. Hogg, Michael (eds.). Attitudes, behavior and social context. London: Academic Press. 11-30.

44. Mišovič, Ján [2001]. Víra v dějinách zemí Koruny české. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství (SLON).

45. Mišovič, Ján a kol. [2010]. Od A do Z ve výzkumech veřejného mínění. Divišov: Orego.

46. Mišovič, Ján [2015]. Komunikace ve společnosti. Plzeň: Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk s.r.o.

47. Mutz, Diana [2002]. Cross-cuting social network: Testing democratic theory in practice. American Political Science Review (96) 1. CrossRef

48. Nail Paul, R. [1996]. Toward an integration of some models and theories of social response. Psychological Bulletin (100). CrossRef

49. Nail, Paul, R. - Helton, Whitney, B [1999]. On the Distinction between Behavioral Contagion, Conversion Conformity and Compliance Conformity. North American Journal of Psychology (1) 1. 87-94.

50. Newcomb, Theodore [1953]. An approach to the study of communicative acts. Psychological Review. (60). CrossRef

51. Noelle-Neuman, Elisabeth [1993]. Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion - our social skin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

52. Page, Benjamin - Shapiro, Robert - Dempsey, Glenn [1987]. What Moves Public Opinion? American Political Science Review 81 (1). CrossRef

53. Popitz, Heinrich [2006]. Soziale Normen. Frankfurt.

54. Pospíšilová, Marie [2016]. Facebooková (ne)závislost Identita, interakce a uživatelská kariéra na Facebooku. Praha: Karolinum.

55. Priester, Joseph, R. - Petty, Richard, E. [2001]. Extending the bases of subjective attitudinal ambivalence: Interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents of evaluation tension. Journal of Personality and Social psychology (80) 1. CrossRef

56. Přibáň, Jiří [2020]. Z osvícenství k procitnutí? Právo, Salon 1196. 15. října 2020.

57. Puchmertl, Jaroslav [2008]. Michel Foucault: fatální nedocenění významu konformity. Praha: Triton.

58. Přikrylová, Jana - Jahodová, Hana [2010]. Moderní marketingová komunikace. Praha: Grada Publishing.

59. Riesman, David [1968]. Osamělý dav. Praha: Mladá fronta.

60. Salwen, Michael, B. - Lin, Carolyn - Matera, Frances, R. [1993].Willingness to discuss "Official English": A test of three communities. Journalism Quarterly (71). CrossRef

61. Sarrazin, Thilo [2015]. Teror cnosti: o hranicích názorové svobody v Německu. Praha: Academia.

62. Shiraev, Eric - Sobel, Richard [2006]. People and Their Opinions. New York: Pearson, Longman.

63. Slaměník, Ivan [2019]. Konformita. In. Výrost, Jozef - Slaměník, Ivan - Sollarová, Eva (eds.). Sociální psychologie. Praha: Grada.

64. Smejkalová, Kateřina [2020]. Proč tolik sílí vliv spikleneckých teorií? Mít kontrolu nad vlastním životem. Právo, Salon 1197. 22. října 2020.

65. Stahl, Gerry [2006]. Supporting Group Cognition in an Online Math Community: a Cognitive Tool for Small-Goup Referencing in Text Chat. Journal of Educational Computing Research (35) 2. CrossRef

66. Taylor, Scott, E. - Peplau, Letitia, A. - Sears, David [1997]. Social psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

67. Tetlock, Philip, E - Peterson, Randall, S. - McGuire, Charles - Chang, Shi-jie, J. - Feld, Peter [1992]. Assessing political group dynamics. A test of the groupthink model. Journal of Personality and Social psychology (63) 3. CrossRef

68. Tice, Dianne, M. [1992]. Self-concept change and self-presentation.The looking glass self is also a magnifying glass. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (63). CrossRef

69. Thöndlová, Gabriela [2008]. Společnost prožitku Gerharda Schulze. In. Šubrt, Jiří. Soudobá sociologie III. Praha: Karolinum Press.

70. Troníček, Jakub [2020]. Stovky odpůrců roušek. Právo, 7. prosince 2020.

71. Turner, John, C. [1991]. Social Influence. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

72. Veselý, Arnošt [2012]. Institucionalizace neodpovědnosti, efektivity nebo konformity? Reformy organizací veřejných služeb v teorii akontability. Sociologický časopis (48) 4.

73. Visser, Penny, S. - Mirabile, Robert, R. [2004]. Attitudes in the social context: the impact of social network composition on individual-level attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (87) 6. CrossRef

74. Wheeler, Ladd [1966]. Toward a theory of of behavioral contagion. Psychological Review (73). CrossRef

75. Zaller, John [1985]. The Diffusion of Political Attitudes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

76. Zhao, Zuowei [2018]. Group Cognition and Conformity under the Influence of Network Public Opinion Based on EEG Testing Technology. Neuro Quantology (16) 6. CrossRef

Creative Commons License
Konformita, společenský fenomén projevující se v chování většiny lidí is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

230 x 157 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 120 czk
ISSN: 1804-0616
E-ISSN: 2336-3525