Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica (AUC Kinanthropologica) is an international peer reviewed journal for the publication of research outcomes in the humanities, the social sciences and the natural sciences, as applied to kinathropology. It is a multidisciplinary journal accepting only original unpublished articles in English in the various sub-disciplines and related fields of kinanthropology, such as Anthropology, Anthropomotorics, Sports Pedagogy, Sociology of Sport, Philosophy of Sport, History of Sport, Physiology of Sport And Exercise, Physical Education, Applied Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Human Biomechanics, Psychology of Sport, Sports Training and Coaching, Sport Management, etc. The journal also welcomes interdisciplinary articles. The journal also includes reports of relevant activities and reviews of relevant publications.

The journal is abstracted and indexed by CNKI, DOAJ, EBSCO, ERIH PLUS, SPOLIT, SPORTDiscus, and Ulrichsweb.

AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA, Vol 54 No 1 (2018), 41–52

A physical activity barriers questionnaire for youth with visual impairments

Ellen Armstrong, Lauren Lieberman, Eva Prokešová, Jeffrey Martiin

announced: 21. 06. 2018


Background. In the current paper we examined the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Barriers Questionnaire for children with Visual Impairments (PABQ-VI). We examined evidence for the ability of the PABQ-VI to produce scores considered to be valid and exhibit internal reliability. Methods. Forty one children living in the USA who were attending a residential sports camp participated in our research. Psychometric properties of the PABQ-VI were investigated using Pearson product-moment coefficients, Cronbach’s alpha and split-half reliability tests. Convergent validity was established by exploring correlations between the PABQ-VI, physical activity (PA) levels and participant’s self-efficacy for overcoming barriers. Results. Participants demonstrated low PA levels. Both PA participation and barrier PA self-efficacy scores were correlated with the PABQ-VI. The most physically active participants perceived fewer barriers and had stronger efficacy compared to participants who were less physically active. Conclusions. Overall, the PABQ-VI demonstrated preliminary evidence of convergent validity. Future researchers may consider reducing participant burden by reducing the scale length through eliminating the most poorly performing items and examining the three-factor structure using factor analysis.

keywords: exercise; disability; adapted sport; blind

references (27)

1. Allison, M. J., & Keller, C. (2004). Self-efficacy intervention effect on physical activity in older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(1), 31–46. CrossRef PubMed

2. Armstrong, Lieberman, Guerrero, & Martin, in review.

3. Aslan, U., Calik, B., & Kitis, A. (2012). The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 1799–1804. CrossRef PubMed

4. Augestad, L., & Jiang, L. (2015). Physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition among children and young adults with visual impairments: A systematic review. Brittish Journal of Visual Impairment, 33(3), 167–182. CrossRef

5. Ayotte, B. J., Margrett, J. A., & Hicks-Patrick, J. (2010). Physical activity in middle-aged and young-old adults the roles of self-efficacy, barriers, outcome expectancies, self-regulatory behaviors and social support. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(2), 173–185. CrossRef PubMed

6. Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education & Behavior, 31(2), 143–164. CrossRef PubMed

7. Blessing, D. L., McCrimmon, D., Stovall, J., & Williford, H. N. (1993). The effects of regular exercise programs for visually impaired and sighted schoolchildren. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 87(2), 50–52.

8. Greguol, M., Gobbi, E., & Carraro, A. (2014). Physical Activity Practice Among Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment – Influence of Parental Support and Percieved Barriers. Disability and Rehabilitation, 37(4), 327–330. CrossRef PubMed

9. Haegele, J., & Porretta, D. (2015). Physical activity and school-age individuals with visual impairments: a literature review. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(1), 68–82. CrossRef PubMed

10. Holbrook, E. A., Caputo, J. L., Perry, T. L., Fuller, D. K., & Morgan, D. W. (2009). Physical activity, body composition, and perceived quality of life of adults with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(1), 17–29.

11. Hubley, A. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Validity and consequences of test interpretation and use. Social Indicators Research, 103(2), 219–230. CrossRef

12. Jaarsma, E., Dekker, R., Koopmans, S., Dijkstra, P., & Geertzen, J. (2014). Barriers to and Facilitators of Sports Participation in People With Visual Impairments. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 31(3), 240–264. CrossRef PubMed

13. Kissow, A. (2015). Participation in physical activity and the every day life of people with physical disabilities: a review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 17(2), 144–166. CrossRef

14. Kowalski, K., Crocker, P., & Donen, R. (2004, August). The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and Adolescents (PAQ-A) Manual. Retrieved from:

15. Lee, M., Zhu, W., Ackley-Holbrook, E., Brower, D., & McMurray, B. (2014). Calibration and validation of the Physical Activity Barrier Scale for persons who are blind or visually impaired. Disability and Health Journal, 7, 309–317. CrossRef PubMed

16. Lieberman, L., Byrne, H., Mattern, C., Watt, C., & Fernandez-Vivo, M. (2010). Health-related fitness of youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(6), 349–359.

17. Perkins, K., Columna, L., Lieberman, L., & Bailey, J. (2013). Parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 107(2), 131–142.

18. Ramirez, E., Kulinna, P., & Cothran, D. (2012). Constructs of physical activity behaviour in children: the usefulness of social cognitive theory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 303–310. CrossRef

19. Salmon, J., Owen, N., Crawford, D., Bauman, A., & Sallis, J. F. (2003). Physical activity and sedentary behavior: A population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference. Health Psychology, 22(2), 178–188. CrossRef PubMed

20. Sechrist, K., Walker, S., & Pender, N. (1987). Development and psychometric evaluation of the exercise benefits/barriers scale. Research in Nursing and Health, 10(6), 357–365. CrossRef PubMed

21. Shapiro, D., Moffett, A., Lieberman, L., & Dummer, G. (2005). Perceived competence of children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 99(1), 15–25.

22. Shields, N., Synnot, A., & Barr, M. (2012). Perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity for children with disability: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(14), 989–997. CrossRef PubMed

23. Stuart, M. E., Lieberman, L. J., & Hand, K. E. (2006). Beliefs about physical activity among children who are visually impaired and their parents. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 100(4), 223–234.

24. Telama, R., Yang, X., Leskinen, E., Kankaanpaa, A., Hirvensalo, M., Tammelin, T., Viikari, J., & Raitakari, O. (2014). Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(5), 955–962. CrossRef PubMed

25. United States Association of Blind Athletes (2016, January 29). IBSA Visual Classifications. Retrieved from USABA:

26. Voss, C., Ogunleye, A. A., & Sandercock, G. R. (2013). Physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents: English norms and cut – off points. Pediatrics International, 55(4), 498–507. CrossRef PubMed

27. Wagner, M. O., Haibach, P. S., & Lieberman, L. J. (2013). Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments – Research to practice. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3246–3252. CrossRef PubMed

Creative Commons License
A physical activity barriers questionnaire for youth with visual impairments is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

157 x 230 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 190 czk
ISSN: 1212-1428
E-ISSN: 2336-6052