AUC IURIDICA
AUC IURIDICA

Acta Universitatis Carolinae Iuridica (AUC Iuridica) is a legal journal published since 1955, which presents longer essays as well as short articles on topics relevant for legal theory and international, European and Czech law. It also publishes works concerning current legislative problems.

Although intended primarily for domestic audience, AUC Iuridica is useful also for foreign experts, who can take advantage of summaries in foreign languages (English, German and French) and key words, which are systematically added to the main articles and essays.

The published articles are subject to peer reviews. If necessary, reviewed texts are sent back to the author for revision.

AUC Iuridica accepts contributions from any contributor on any current legal topic.

The journal is registered in the Czech National Bibliography (kept by the National Library of the Czech Republic) and in the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (kept by the American Association of Law Libraries).

The journal is archived in Portico.

–––

We are pleased to inform you that the journal Acta Universitatis Carolinae Iuridica was the first journal of the Faculty of Law of Charles University to be included in the prestigious international database SCOPUS. This Elsevier database is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature in the world. The editors of the journal expect from the inclusion in the elite SCOPUS database not only an increase in the readership of the journal, but also an increase in interest in the publication of papers by both Czech and foreign authors.

AUC IURIDICA, Vol 67 No 3 (2021), 153–166

Právní režim přírodních zdrojů na nebeských tělesech

[The Legal Regime of Natural Resources of Celestial Bodies]

Šimon Pepřík

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/23366478.2021.30
announced: 13. 09. 2021

abstract

The aim of this article is to describe the legal regime of the natural resources of celestial bodies. In recent months and years, there has been an increase in debates regarding mining on the moon and asteroids. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the legal regime of such activities. In particular, whether such activities are possible from the point of view of international law, how they are regulated and what are the potential future developments in this area. The article offers an analysis and comparison of the legal regime governing the natural resources of celestial bodies based on the Outer Space Treaty and the Moon Agreement, respectively. The Moon Agreement is given special attention despite its limited international significance, and arguments are presented in favour of its possible recognition by more states in the future. In both cases, arguments are presented that the non-appropriation principle regarding the outer space and celestial bodies, as expressed in both international treaties, does not apply to the natural resources.

keywords: legal regime; natural resources; celestial bodies; outer space

references (27)

1. Agreement governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, datum sjednání 5. prosince 1979, vstup v platnost 11. července 1984, UNTC No. 23002.

2. Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982, datum přijetí 28. července 1994, vstup v platnost 28. července 1996, A/RES/48/263.

3. Apollo 11 Mission. In: Lunar and Planetary Institute [online]. [cit. 2020-12-02]. Dostupné na: https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/.

4. BITTENCOURT NETO, O. DE O. - HOFMANN, M. - MASSON-ZWAAN, T. - STEFOUDI, D. (eds.). Building Blocks for the Development of an International Framework for the Governance of Space Resource Activities: a Commentary [online]. The Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing, 2020 [cit. 2020-07-10]. Dostupné na: https://boeken.rechtsgebieden.boomportaal.nl/publicaties/9789462361218#57.

5. Commitee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Verbatim Record of the Two Hundred and Third Meeting [online]. 16. 7. 1979 [cit. 2020-11-27]. Dostupné na: https://www.unoosa.org/pdf/transcripts/copuos/AC105_PV203E.pdf.

6. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Legal Subcommittee. The Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group [online]. 2016 [cit. 2020-07-08]. Dostupné na: https://www.unoosa.org/res/oosadoc/data/documents/2016/aac_105c_22016crp/aac_105c_22016crp_17_0_html/AC105_C2_2016_CRP17E.pdf.

7. DAVID, V. - SLADKÝ, P. - ZBOŘIL, F. Mezinárodní právo veřejné s kazuistikou. Praha: Leges, 2008. ISBN 978-80-87212-08-0.

8. Declaration of Principles Governing the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor, and the Subsoil Thereof, beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction, datum přijetí 17. prosince 1970, RES 2749 (XXV).

9. GOROVE, S. Interpreting Article II of the Outer Space Treaty. Fordham Law Review [online]. 1969, Vol. 37, No. 3, s. 351-352 [cit. 2020-11-19]. Dostupné na: https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1966&context=flr.

10. HARN, N. Commercial Mining of Celestial Bodies: a Legal Roadmap. Georgetown Environmental Law Review [online]. 2015, Vol. 27, No. 4 [cit. 2020-11-19]. Dostupné na: https://gielr.files.wordpress.com/2015/12/harn.pdf.

11. International Institute of Air and Space Law. The Hague International Space Resources Governance Working Group. In: Leiden University [online]. [cit. 2020-07-08]. Dostupné na: https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/law/institute-of-public-law/institute-of-air-space-law/the-hague-space-resources-governance-working-group.

12. International Mobile Satelite Organization. English Text of the IMSO Convention Amended as Adopted by the Twentieth Session of the IMSO Assembly Provisionally Applied from 6 October 2008 [online]. [cit. 2020-11-14]. Dostupné na: https://imso.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/E.IMSO-CONVENTION.pdf.

13. KRAMER, K. Neil deGrasse Tyson Says Space Ventures Will Spawn First Trillionaire. In. NBC News [online]. 3. 5. 2015 [cit. 2020-12-02]. Dostupné na: https://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/neil-degrasse-tyson-says-space-ventures-will-spawn-first-trillionaire-n352271.

14. LEE, R. J. Creating a Practical Legal Framework for the Commercial Exploitation of Mineral Resources in Outer Space. Dizertační práce. Perth: 2009, Murdoch University.

15. LISTNER, M. The Moon Treaty: failed international law or waiting in the shadows? In: The Space Review [online]. 24. 10. 2011 [cit. 2020-11-27]. Dostupné na: https://www.thespacereview.com/article/1954/1.

16. MAN, P. DE. The Commercial Exploitation of Outer Space and Celestial Bodies - A Functional Solution to the Natural Resource Challenge. In: SUNDAHL, J. M. - GOPALAKRISHNAN, V. (eds.). New Perspectives on Space Law: Proceedings of the 53rd IISL Colloquium on The Law of Outer Space: Young Scholars Session [online]. Paris: The International Institute of Space Law, 2011, s. 58 [cit. 2020-11-14]. Dostupné na: https://iislweb.org/docs/NewPerspectivesonSpaceLaw.pdf.

17. Oceans and Law of the Sea - United Nations. Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements [online]. [cit. 2020-12-02]. Dostupné na: https://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm.

18. ONDŘEJ, J. Právní režimy mořských oblastí: srovnání s kosmem a Antarktidou. Plzeň: Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk, 2017. ISBN 978-80-7380-630-9.

19. SCHIERHOLZ, S. - FINCH, J. NASA Selects Companies to Collect Lunar Resources for Artemis Demonstrations. In: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [online]. 3. 12. 2020 [cit. 2020-12-05]. Dostupné na: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-selects-companies-to-collect-lunar-resources-for-artemis-demonstrations.

20. TENNEN, L. I. Outer Space: a Preserve for All Humankind. Houston Journal of International Law [online]. 1979, Vol. 2, No. 1 [cit. 2020-11-14]. Dostupné na: https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/hujil2&i=153.

21. The Hague International Space Resources Governance Working Group. Building Blocks for the Development of an International Framework on Space Resource Activities [online]. 2019 [cit. 2020-07-10]. Dostupné na: https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/binaries/content/assets/rechtsgeleerdheid/instituut-voor-publiekrecht/lucht--en-ruimterecht/space-resources/final-bb.pdf.

22. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, datum sjednání 27. ledna 1967, vstup v platnost 10. října 1967, UNTC No. 8843.

23. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, datum přijetí 10. prosince 1982, vstup v platnost 16. listopadu 1994, Registration No. 31363.

24. United Nations. Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1956, Volume II [online]. 1957, New York. Dostupné na: https://legal.un.org/ilc/publications/yearbooks/english/ilc_1956_v2.pdf.

25. WALL, M. NASA wants to buy moon dirt from private companies. In: Space [online]. 10. 9. 2020 [cit. 2020-10-16]. Dostupné na: https://www.space.com/nasa-buy-moon-dirt-private-companies.html.

26. WEHNER, M. Asteroid mining will produce the world's first trillionaire, according to Goldman Sachs. In: BGR [online]. 23. 4. 2018 [cit. 2020-12-02]. Dostupné na: https://bgr.com/2018/04/23/asteroid-mining-trillionaire-goldman-sachs-report/.

27. ZULLO, K. M. The Need to Clarify the Status of Property Rights in International Space Law. The Georgetown Law Journal [online]. 2002, Vol. 90, No. 7, s. 2420 [cit. 2020-11-14]. Dostupné na: https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/glj90&i=2435.

Creative Commons License
Právní režim přírodních zdrojů na nebeských tělesech is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

230 x 157 mm
published: 4 x per year
print price: 65 czk
ISSN: 0323-0619
E-ISSN: 2336-6478

Download