Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica (AUC Kinanthropologica) is an international peer reviewed journal for the publication of research outcomes in the humanities, the social sciences and the natural sciences, as applied to kinathropology. It is a multidisciplinary journal accepting only original unpublished articles in English in the various sub-disciplines and related fields of kinanthropology, such as Anthropology, Anthropomotorics, Sports Pedagogy, Sociology of Sport, Philosophy of Sport, History of Sport, Physiology of Sport And Exercise, Physical Education, Applied Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Human Biomechanics, Psychology of Sport, Sports Training and Coaching, Sport Management, etc. The journal also welcomes interdisciplinary articles. The journal also includes reports of relevant activities and reviews of relevant publications.

The journal is abstracted and indexed by CNKI, DOAJ, EBSCO, ERIH PLUS, SPOLIT, SPORTDiscus, and Ulrichsweb.

AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA, Vol 55 No 1 (2019), 10–20

Most common injuries of the musculoskeletal system among children of elementary school age who engage in gymnastic sports (aerobics, artistic or rhythmic gymnastics) at an elite level

Kristina Hassmannová, Dagmar Pavlů, Tereza Nováková

announced: 25. 06. 2019


Background. The main objective was to find out which musculoskeletal system problems (pain and/or injuries) are the most common among girls of elementary school age who engage in gymnastic sports at an elite level. We were also interested in the influence of the success of girls in gymnastics competitions on problems of the musculoskeletal system. In connection with the pain and injuries of the musculoskeletal system, we asked whether the gymnasts were monitored professionally on the medical side, whether they regularly engaged in primary or secondary physiotherapeutic care. Methods. The data were obtained by combining qualitative and quantitative research in the form of a structured interview and a questionnaire. Retrospective data were collected. The research group consisted of 58 girls (average age 13.5 years) engaging in gymnastic sports at an elite level. Results. A musculoskeletal system problem occurred in 98% female gymnasts during their elementary school age. Their lower limbs, specifically the knees and ankles, appeared to be the most susceptible parts of the musculoskeletal system. Multiple musculoskeletal system problems were more frequent than single isolated problems. As far as the correlation between the incidence of pain/injury and the girls’ individual performance level is concerned, gymnasts assuming non-medal positions had a higher incidence of pain and injuries than the medal-winning gymnasts. The higher incidence of injuries in non-medal gymnasts compared to medal gymnasts was confirmed by statistical analysis. Physiotherapeutic prevention, whether primary or secondary, was given a minimum number of gymnasts. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrate a high susceptibility to painful conditions and injuries especially of lower limbs of elite level gymnasts at their younger school age. It also proved statistically significant that gymnasts who are worse off with performance always have a higher incidence of problems with the musculoskeletal system. These results are also probably due to the fact that most of the interviewed gymnasts are not in physiotherapy or other professional care.

keywords: gymnastic sports; musculoskeletal system; pain and injuries; hyper mobility

references (20)

1. Balyi, I., & Stafford, I. (2005). Coaching for Long-Term Athlete Development. Leeds: Coachwise UK.

2. Bradshaw, E. J. (2010). Performance and health concepts in artistic gymnastics. International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: Conference Proceedings Archive, 28, 51-55.

3. Caine, O. J., et al. (1989). An epidemiologic investigation of injuries affecting young competitive female gymnasts. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17(6), 811-820. CrossRef PubMed

4. Goodway, J., et al. (1989). The distribution of injuries among young female gymnasts in relation to selected training and environmental factors. Abstract. Paediatric Work Physiology, Symposium, Leuven.

5. Grabara, M. (2010). Postural variables in girls practicing sport gymnastics. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 2, 74-77. CrossRef

6. Hassmannová, K. (2018). Nejčastější zranění pohybového aparátu u dětí mladšího školního věku, které se věnují vrcholově gymnastickému aerobiku, sportovní nebo moderní gymnastice. Master's thesis. Prague: UK FTVS.

7. Hassmannová, K., Nováková, T., Satrapová, L., & Pavlů, D. (2018). Nedostatky ve fyzioterapeutické péči v souvislosti se zraněními pohybového aparátu u dětí školního věku, které se věnují vrcholově gymnastickým sportům (gymnastickému aerobiku, sportovní nebo moderní gymnastice). Rehabilitace a fyzikální lékařství, 25(4), 165-170.

8. Karantanas, A. H. (2010). Sports injuries in children and adolescents. New York: Springer. CrossRef

9. Keller, M. S. (2009). Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children. Pediatric Radiology, 39(12), 1299. CrossRef PubMed

10. Kirialanis, P., Malliou, P., Beneka, A., Giannakopoulos, K. (2003). Occurrence of acute lower limb injuries in artistic gymnasts in relation to event and exercise phase. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(2), 137-139. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

11. Kolar, E., Pavletič, M. S., Smrdu, M., & Atikovič, A. (2017). Athletes' perception of the causes of injury in gymnastics. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(5), 703-710. PubMed Central

12. Kolář, P. (1988). Fyziologie hybnosti, relaxace a kompenzační cvičení ve sportovní gymnastice. Prague: ČO ČSTV. PubMed Central

13. Kučera, M., Kolář, P., & Dylevský, I. (2011). Dítě, sport a zdraví. Prague: Galén. PubMed Central

14. Liebenson, C. (2007). Rehabilitation of the spine: a practitioner's manual. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams. PubMed Central

15. Lowry, C. B., & Leveau, B. F. (1982). A retrospective study of gymnastic injuries to competitors and noncompetitors in private clubs. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 10(4), 237-239. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

16. Meeusen, R., & Borms, J. (1992). Gymnastic Injuries. Sports Medicine, 13(5), 337-356. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

17. Pettrone, F. A., & Ricciardelli, E. (1987). Gymnastic injuries: the Virginia experience 1982-1983. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(1), 59-62. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

18. Sands, W. A. (2000). Injury Prevention in Women's Gymnastics. Sports Medicine, 30(5), 359-373. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

19. Satrapová, L., & Nováková, T. (2012). Hypermobilita ve sportu. Rehabilitace a fyzikální lékařství, 19(4), 199-202. PubMed Central

20. Stošić, D., Milenković, S., & Živković, D. (2011). The influence of sport on the devolopment of postural disorders in athletes. Facta Universitatis, 9(4), 375-384. PubMed Central

Creative Commons License
Most common injuries of the musculoskeletal system among children of elementary school age who engage in gymnastic sports (aerobics, artistic or rhythmic gymnastics) at an elite level is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

157 x 230 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 190 czk
ISSN: 1212-1428
E-ISSN: 2336-6052