Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica (AUC Kinanthropologica) is an international peer reviewed journal for the publication of research outcomes in the humanities, the social sciences and the natural sciences, as applied to kinathropology. It is a multidisciplinary journal accepting only original unpublished articles in English in the various sub-disciplines and related fields of kinanthropology, such as Anthropology, Anthropomotorics, Sports Pedagogy, Sociology of Sport, Philosophy of Sport, History of Sport, Physiology of Sport And Exercise, Physical Education, Applied Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Human Biomechanics, Psychology of Sport, Sports Training and Coaching, Sport Management, etc. The journal also welcomes interdisciplinary articles. The journal also includes reports of relevant activities and reviews of relevant publications.

The journal is abstracted and indexed by CNKI, DOAJ, EBSCO, ERIH PLUS, SPOLIT, SPORTDiscus, and Ulrichsweb.

AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA, Vol 53 No 2 (2017), 107–115

The influence of explosive power on the performance of an elite swimmer in 25 and 50 metre pools

Simona Baumrtová, Radim Jebavý, Vladimír Hojka

announced: 30. 11. 2017


Each swimming stroke, and each distance, requires a different approach to strength training. For sprinters in swimming the most essential part is explosive power. The goal of this case study was to find out how explosive training can influence the performance in both long course and short course meters swimming pools. This study was conducted with the cooperation of an elite swimmer over a time period of 6 years. Tests were performed twice a year (June and November) during the years of 2010–2016. The Myotest device was used to measure countermovement jump height. Swimming performance was evaluated by FINA points in the swimmer’s three main disciplines. ANOVA, Cohen’s d and regression equation were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that explosive power does not influence performance in the 50m swimming pool (p = 0.25; r2 = 0.08). However the performance in the 25m pool is directly linked to the level of explosive power of the lower limbs (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.85). The results of the swimmer in the 25m pool are closely related to the level of explosive power of the lower limbs. Performance in the 50m pool might not be affected by level of lower limb power.

keywords: swimming; lower limb; countermovement jump; longitudinal study

references (56)

1. Argus, C., Gill, N. D., Keogh, J. W., & Hopkins, W. G. (2010). Acute Effects of Verbal Feedback on Explosive Upper-Body Performance in Elite Athletes. International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports: Conference Proceedings Archive, 28, 1–4.

2. Baumrt, T. (2016). Intranet [The database to imput the training data]. Retrieved from:

3. Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W., & Wathan, D. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

4. Benjanuvatra, N., Edmunds, K., & Blanskby, B. (2007). Jumping Ability and Swimming Grab-Start Performance in Elite and Recreational Swimmers. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1(3), 231–241.

5. Beretic, I., Durovic, M., Okicic, T., & Dopsaj, M. (2013). Relations between Lower Body Isometric Muscle Force Characteristics and Start Performance in Elite Male Sprint Swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12.

6. Bernacikova, M., Kapounkova, K., Novotny, J. (2011). Fyziologie sportovniho treninku [Physiology of sports discipline]. Retrieved from:

7. Boyle, M. (2003). Functional Training for Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

8. Casartelli, N., Muller, R., & Maffiuletti, N. A. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Myotest accelerometric system for the assessment of vertical jump height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(11), 3186–3193. CrossRef PubMed

9. Castagna, C. (2013). Concurrent Validity of Vertical Jump Performance Assessment Systems. Journal of Strength, 27(3), 761–768. CrossRef PubMed

10. Choukou, M., Laffaye, G., & Taiar, R. (2011). Reliability and validity of an accelerometric system for assessing vertical jumping performance. Bioliogy and Sport, 31(1), 55–62. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

11. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. L. Erlbaum Associates. PubMed Central

12. Comstock, B. A., Solomon-Hill, G., Flanagan, S. D., Earp, J. E., Luk, H. Y., Dobbins, K. A., Dunn-Lewis, C., Fragala, M. S., Ho, J. Y., Hatfield, D. L., Vingren, J. L., Denegar, C. R., Volek, J. S., Kupchak, B. R., Maresh, C. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2011). Validity of the Myotest in measuring force and power production in the squat and bench press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(8), 2293–2297. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

13. Cronin, J., Jones, J., & Frost, D. (2007). The Relationship between Dryland Power Measures and Tumble Turn Velocity in Elite Swimmers. Journal Swimming Research, 17(1), 17–23. PubMed Central

14. Cronin, J. B., McNair, P. J., & Marshall, R. N. (2010). The role of maximum strength and load on initial power production. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 32(10), 1763–1769. CrossRef PubMed Central

15. Cronin, J., & Sleivert, G. (2005). Challenges in Understanding the Influence of Maximal Power Training on Improving Athletic Performance. Sports Medicine, 35(3), 213–234. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

16. Česky svaz plaveckych sportů (2012). Plavecka připrava Simony Baumrtove [Swimming preparation of Simona Baumrtova]. Prague: Czech Swimming Federation. PubMed Central

17. Dinu, D., Houel, N., Faury, A., & Seyfried, D. (2011). Accurancy and reliability of the Myotest Pro System to Evaluate a Squat Jump. Procedia Engeneering, 13, 434–438. CrossRef PubMed Central

18. Dovalil, J., Choutka, M., Svoboda, B., Hošek, V., Perič, T., Potměšil, J., Vranova, J., & Bunc, V. (2002). Vykon a trenink ve sportu [Performance and training in sport]. Prague: Olympia. PubMed Central

19. Ďurovic, M., Beretic, I., & Okicic, T. (2015). The Relations between Power and Force Variables Realized during the Squat Jump with Start Performance in National Level Male Sprint Swimmers. Physical Education and Sport, 13(1), 89–96. PubMed Central

20. Fig, G. (2010). Why competitive Swimmers Need Explosive Power. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 32(4), 84–86. CrossRef PubMed Central

21. Fleck, S. J., & Kraemer, W. J. (1987). Designing Resistance Training Programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. PubMed Central

22. Fleck, S. J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2014). Designing resistance training programs (4th edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. PubMed Central

23. Garrido, N., Marinho, D. A., Barbosa, T. M., Costa, A. M., Silva, A. J., Perez-Turpin, J. S., & Margues, M. C. (2010). Relationships between Dryland Strength, Power Variables and Short Sprint Performance in Young Competitive Swimmers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 5(2), 240–249. CrossRef PubMed Central

24. Gatta, G., Cortesi, M., & Di Michele, R. (2012). Power production of the lower limbs in flutter-kick swimming. Sports Biomechanics, 11(4), 480–491. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

25. Gindre, C., Lussiana, T., Hebert-Losier, K., & Morin, J. B. (2016). Reliability and validity of the MyotestR for measuring running stride kinematics. Journal of Sports Science, 34(7), 664–670. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

26. Haufler, S. (2007). Coaching the Details: Turns, Underwaters, Breakouts, and Finishes. World Clinic Series, 39, 181–189. PubMed Central

27. Haycraft, J., & Robertson, S. (2015). The Effects of Concurent Aerobic Training and Maximal Strength, Power and Swim-Specific Dryland Training Methods on Swim Performance. A review. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 23(2), 91–99. PubMed Central

28. Houel, N., Faury, A., & Seyfried, D. (2013). Influence of the point of attachment of two accelerometres on the assessment of squat jump performances. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 12(1), 1–17. PubMed Central

29. Jebavy, R., Hojka, V., Crossan, W., & Baumrtova, S. (2016). A Comparison of lower extremity explosive power among elite swimmers throughout the yearly training cycle. Česka kinantropologie, 20(3), 89–97. PubMed Central

30. Jebavy, R., Hojka, V., & Vojta, Z. (2014). Uroveň explozivni sily u extraligovych hračů ledniho hokeje [The level of explosive strength in Extraliga ice hockey players]. In: M. Pupiš et al., Kondičny trening v roku 2014, recenzovany zbornik z medzinarodnej vedeckej konferencie (pp. 49–55). Banska Bystrica. PubMed Central

31. Kaufmann, C. (2016). Fina Point Scoring. Switzerland: Splash Software Ltd. PubMed Central

32. Lehnert, M., Novosad, J., & Neuls, F. (2001). Zaklady sportovniho treninku 1 [Fundamentals of sports training 1]. Hanex: Olomouc. PubMed Central

33. Lehnert, M., Novosad, J., Neuls, F., Langer, F., & Botek, M. (2010). Trenink kondice ve sportu [Condition training in sport]. Olomouc: Palacky University. PubMed Central

34. Maglischo, E. W. (2003). Swimming fastest. Alabama: Human Kinetics. PubMed Central

35. Magyar Uszo Szovetseg (2016). Epitese hosszu medencek [Construction of long pools]. Hungary: Budapest. PubMed Central

36. Miler, T., & Čechovska, I. (2008). Plavani [Swimming]. Prague: Grada Publishing. PubMed Central

37. Mohadjer, S., Dittmar, A., Mazet, J., Machet-Pietropaoli, H., & Dejour, H. (1990). MYOTEST: an isokinetic and isometric testing device. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 28(3), 264–268. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

38. Morouco, P., Gonzales-Badillo, J. J., & Garrido, N. (2012). Effects of Dryland Strength Training on Swimming Performance: A Brief Review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7(2), 553–559. CrossRef PubMed Central

39. Morouco, P., Neiva, H., Gonzales-Badillo, J. J., Garrido, N., Marinho, D. A., & Marques, M. C. (2011). Associations Between Dry Land Strength and Power Measurements with Swimming Performance in Elite Athletes: A pilot study. Journal of Human Kinetics, Special Issue, 29, 105–112. CrossRef PubMed Central

40. Neuls, F., Svozil, Z., Viktorjenik, D., & Dub, J. (2014). Plavani [Swimming]. Olomouc: Palacky University. PubMed Central

41. Newton, H. (2002). Explosive lifting for sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. PubMed Central

42. Perič, T., & Dovalil, J. (2010). Sportovni trenink [Sport training]. Prague: Grada Publishing. PubMed Central

43. Prukner, V., & Machova, I. (2012) Didaktika atletiky [Didactics of athletics]. Olomouc: Palacky University. PubMed Central

44. Schimdtbleicher, D. (2004). Jumping exercises for explosive strength development in athletes. 4th International Conference on Strength Training. Serres, Greece. PubMed Central

45. Siff, M. C. (2003). Supertraining. Supertraining Institute Denver, USA. PubMed Central

46. Smilios, I., Sotiropoulos, K., Christou, M., Douda, H., Spaias, A., & Tokmakidis, S. (2013). Maximum power training load determination and its effects on load-power relationship, maximum strength, and vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(5), 1223–1233. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

47. Šťastny, P., & Petr, M. (2012). Funkčni silovy trenink [Functional strength training]. Prague: Charles University. PubMed Central

48. Tillin, N. A., Jimenez-Reyes, P., Pain, M. T., & Folland, J. P. (2010). Neuromuscular performance of explosive power athletes versus untrained individuals. Medicine and Scienece in Sport and Exercise, 42(4), 781–790. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

49. Valkova, H. (2015). Sports training within Special Olympics fitness innovation program. In: The 10th International Conference in Kinanthropology. Brno: FSpS MU. PubMed Central

50. Vanderka, M. (2013). Silovy trening pre vykon [Strength training for performance]. Bratislava: Slovenska vedecka spoločnosť pre telesnu vychovu a šport. PubMed Central

51. Van Oteghen, S. L. (1975). Two Speeds of Isokinetic Exercise as Related to the Vertical Jump Performance of Women. Research Quarterly, 46(1), 78–84. PubMed PubMed Central

52. Verkhoshansky, J., & Stiff, M. (2007). Supertraining – Special Strength Training for Sporting Excellence. Moscow: Verkhoshansky SSTM. PubMed Central

53. Verkhoshansky, V. Y., & Verkhoshansky, N. (2011). Special Strength Training: Manual for Coaches. Moscow: Verkhoshansky SSTM. PubMed Central

54. Villarreal, E. S., et al. (2013). Enhancing Sprint and Strength Performance: Combined versus Maximal Power, Traditional Heavy-Resistance and Plyometric Training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16, 146–150. CrossRef PubMed PubMed Central

55. Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Journal of Science and practice of strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. PubMed Central

56. Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2014). Silovy trenink, praxe a věda [Strength training, practice and science]. Prague: Mlada fronta. PubMed Central

Creative Commons License
The influence of explosive power on the performance of an elite swimmer in 25 and 50 metre pools is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

157 x 230 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 190 czk
ISSN: 1212-1428
E-ISSN: 2336-6052