AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA

AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA

Acta Universitatis Carolinae Kinanthropologica (AUC Kinanthropologica) is an international peer reviewed journal for the publication of research outcomes in the humanities, the social sciences and the natural sciences, as applied to kinathropology. It is a multidisciplinary journal accepting only original unpublished articles in English in the various sub-disciplines and related fields of kinanthropology, such as Anthropology, Anthropomotorics, Sports Pedagogy, Sociology of Sport, Philosophy of Sport, History of Sport, Physiology of Sport And Exercise, Physical Education, Applied Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Human Biomechanics, Psychology of Sport, Sports Training and Coaching, Sport Management, etc. The journal also welcomes interdisciplinary articles. The journal also includes reports of relevant activities and reviews of relevant publications.

The journal is abstracted and indexed by CNKI, DOAJ, EBSCO, ERIH PLUS, SPOLIT, SPORTDiscus, and Ulrichsweb.

AUC KINANTHROPOLOGICA, Vol 53 No 1 (2017), 21–34

Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

Anna van Dijk, Klára Daďová, Irena Martínková

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/23366052.2017.2
announced: 30. 06. 2017

abstract

Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athletes with ID. In this paper, we discuss the following: the problem of inclusion, some concerns that arise in the classification of paralympic athletes such as self-declaration and eligibility, the open nature of ID sports competition, and the sport offer available for these athletes.

keywords: intellectual disability; paralympic sport; classification; ethics

references (34)

1. Begovac, I., Begovac, B., Majić, G., & Vidović, V. (2009). Longitudinal studies of IQ stability in children with childhood autism – literature survey. Psychiatria Danubina, 21(3), 310–319. PubMed

2. Bredahl, A-M. (2011). Coaching Ethics and the Paralympic sports. In: A. R. Hardman & C. Jones (Eds.), The Ethics of Sports Coaching (pp. 134–146). London: Routledge.

3. Brittain, I. (2016). The Paralympic Games Explained (2nd edition). London: Routledge.

4. Burns, J. (2015). The impact of intellectual disabilities on elite sports performance. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8(1), 251–267. CrossRef

5. Dowling, S., Menke, S., McConkey, R., & Hassan, D. (2013). Sport and Disability: The Special Olympics Youth Unified Sports Programme. In: D. Hassan and J. Lusted (Eds.), Managing Sport: Social and Cultural Perspectives (pp. 108–127). New York, NY: Routledge.

6. Etchells, D. (2015). IPC believes alleged intentional misrepresentation is in "grave danger of undermining the credibility" of Para-swimming. InsideTheGames website, 12 October 2015. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://www.insidethegames.biz/articles/1030898/exclusive-ipc-believes-alleged-intentional-misrepresentation-is-in-grave-danger-of-undermining-the-credibility-of-para-swimming.

7. Franzlová, O., Groch, J., Hybš J., et al. (2000). XI. letní paralympiáda Sydney 2000 [XI. Summer Paralymics Sydney 2000]. Prague: Olympia.

8. Harris, R. (2010). Effects of the New Paralympic Rules for 2012 on the Fairness of the Competition. Updated 4/3/2017. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://trainingandfitnessblog.com/index.php?q=london-2012-paralympics-new-rules.

9. Howe, P. D. (2008). The tail is wagging the dog: Body culture, classification and the Paralympic movement. Ethnography, 9(4), 499–517. CrossRef

10. INAS (2010). Who we are. Our vision. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://www.inas.org/aboutus/who-we-are-2/who-we-are.

11. INAS (2016). SECTION 4: POLICIES. 4.1 INAS ELIGIBILITY & CLASSIFICATION: RULES, POLICY AND PROCEDURE. Updated 22/4/2016. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://www.inas.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4.1-Eligibility-Classification-Policy5.pdf.

12. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2009). Memorandum. P. Van de Vliet. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://www.inas.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/2009_12_15-Memo-IPC-Membership-ID-Athlete-Reinclusion_FINAL.pdf.

13. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2013a). Sports Strategic Plan, 2013–2016, Strategic Outlook for Paralympic sports managed by the IPC. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/131210143320016_WEB_IPC_13_SP_General+131210.pdf.

14. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2013b). IPC publishes strategic plans for nine Paralympic sports. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: https://www.paralympic.org/news/ipc-publishes-strategic-plans-nine-paralympic-sports.

15. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2015a). Explanatory guide classification summer. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/150915170806821_2015_09_15%2BExplanatory%2Bguide%2BClassification_summer%2BFINAL%2B_5.pdf.

16. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2015b). Strategic Plan 2015 to 2018. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/150619133600866_2015_06+IPC+Strategic+Plan+2015-2018_Digital.pdf.

17. International Paralympic Committee (IPC) (2017). Classification Introduction. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: https://www.paralympic.org/classification.

18. Kwon, E., & Block, M. E. (2012). Athletes with intellectual disabilities and the paralympics. Palaestra, 26(3), 25–27.

19. Lantz, E., & Marcellini, A. (2017). Sports games for people with intellectual disabilities. Institutional analysis of an unusual international configuration. Sport in Society. Online first.

20. Lieberman, S. (2012). Classification at London 2012. The Paralympian, 2, 40–41.

21. Nota, L., Ferrari, L., Soresi, S., & Wehmeyer, M. (2007). Self-determination, social abilities and the quality of life of people with intellectual disability. J. Intellect. Disabil. Res., 51(Pt 11), 850–865. CrossRef PubMed

22. Special Olympics (2017). Special Olympics website. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://www.specialolympics.org/Sections/What_We_Do/Our_Mission.aspx.

23. Strohkendl, H. (1985). Functional classification and self-determination of athletes in wheelchair sports. ISMGF Symposium. July 1985, Stoke Mandeville, Aylesbury.

24. Tilinger, P. (2013). Comparison of Athletics Records of Intellectually Disabled Persons with Records of Intact Athletes. AUC Kinanthropologica, 49(2), 52–64. CrossRef

25. Tilinger, P., Lejčarová, A., et al. (2012). Sport osob s intelektovým postižením [Sport of persons with intellectual disability]. Prague: Karolinum.

26. Tomlinson, S. (2013). Man that led shameful Spanish basketball team who pretended to be disabled to win Paralympic gold found guilty of fraud. Mail Online, 14 Oct 2013. Retrieved 12.03.2017 from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/othersports/article-2459172/Spanish-basketball-team-pretended-disabled-win-Paralympic-gold-guilty-fraud.html#ixzz4b-7Nc6tdW.

27. Tweedy, S. M., & Vanlandewijck, Y. C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand – background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. Br. J. Sports Med., 45(4), 259–269. CrossRef PubMed

28. United Nations (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of 2006, article 12. Retrieved 27.03.2017 from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities/article-12-equal-recognition-before-the-law.html.

29. Van Biesen, D., Mactavish, J., Kerremans, J., & Vanlandewijck, Y. (2016). Cognitive Predictors of Performance in Well-Trained Table Tennis Players with Intellectual Disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53, 377–390. CrossRef PubMed

30. Van Biesen, D., Mactavish, J., Pattyn, N., & Vanlandewijck, Y. (2012). Technical proficiency among table tennis players with and without intellectual disabilities. Human Movement Science, 31, 1517–1528. CrossRef PubMed

31. Van Gilder Cooke, S. (2012). How the Paralympics Is Welcoming Back Intellectually Impaired Athletes 12 Years After Cheating Scandal. Time, 29 August 2012. Retrieved 23.03.2017 from: http://olympics.time.com/2012/08/29/how-the-paralympics-is-welcoming-back-intellectually-impaired-athletes-12-years-after-cheating-scandal.

32. Vanlandewijck, Y., & Chapel, R. (1996). Integration and classification issues in competitive sports for athletes with disabilities. Sport Science Review, 5(1), 65–88.

33. Wehmeyer, M. L. (2005). Self-Determination and Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Re-examining Meanings and Misinterpretations. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30(3), 113–120. CrossRef

34. Whitaker, S. (2008). The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(2), 120–128. CrossRef

Creative Commons License
Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

157 x 230 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 190 czk
ISSN: 1212-1428
E-ISSN: 2336-6052

Download