Acta Universitatis Carolinae Iuridica (AUC Iuridica) is a legal journal published since 1955, which presents longer essays as well as short articles on topics relevant for legal theory and international, European and Czech law. It also publishes works concerning current legislative problems.

Although intended primarily for domestic audience, AUC Iuridica is useful also for foreign experts, who can take advantage of summaries in foreign languages (English, German and French) and key words, which are systematically added to the main articles and essays.

The published articles are subject to peer reviews. If necessary, reviewed texts are sent back to the author for revision.

AUC Iuridica accepts contributions from any contributor on any current legal topic.

The journal is registered in the Czech National Bibliography (kept by the National Library of the Czech Republic) and in the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (kept by the American Association of Law Libraries).

The journal is archived in Portico.


We are pleased to inform you that the journal Acta Universitatis Carolinae Iuridica was the first journal of the Faculty of Law of Charles University to be included in the prestigious international database SCOPUS. This Elsevier database is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature in the world. The editors of the journal expect from the inclusion in the elite SCOPUS database not only an increase in the readership of the journal, but also an increase in interest in the publication of papers by both Czech and foreign authors.

AUC IURIDICA, Vol 69 No 2 (2023), 127–137

Specific Performance – and the International Unification of Sales Law

Miklós Király

published online: 07. 06. 2023


Over the past decades, several approaches have been tried in the process of the unification of contract law to regulate the entitlement to performance in kind, but there is still no generally accepted solution. The Vienna Sales Convention, like its predecessors, resolves the question by a quasi-conflict of laws rule, essentially making the award of specific performance dependent upon the law of the forum, thereby undermining the results of unification. Other sources, such as the UNIDROIT Principles, provide autonomous rules that specify in detail the conditions under which it may be claimed. The Draft Common European Sales Law, continues to attach primary importance to the provision of performance in kind, obviously also bearing in mind the interests of consumers.

keywords: unification of contract law; international sales; specific performance; CISG; Common European Sales Law; UNIDROIT Principles

references (36)

1. Advance Purchase Agreement ("APA") for the Production, Purchase and Supply of a COVID-19 Vaccine in the European Union. In: European Commission [online]. 2020 [cit. 2022-04-08]. Available at:

2. ALBERS, G. Die Erzwingung der Erfüllung nach dem CESL im Vergleich mit dem deutschen Recht. ZEuP. 2012, No. 4, pp. 687-704.

3. BEALE, H. - FAUVARQUE-COSSON, B. - RUTGERS, J. - TALLON, D. - VOGENAUER, S. Cases, Materials and Text on Contract Law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

4. BOOYSEN, H. The International Sale of Goods. S. Afr. Y.B. Int'l L. 17th (1991-1992), pp. 71-89.

5. BRIDGE, M. The International Sales of Goods. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

6. CARTWRIGHT, J. Contract Law: an Introduction to the English Law for the Civil Lawyer. 3th ed. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2016.

7. CESL. Common European Sales Law: Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Common European Sales Law, COM(2011)0635 final - 2011/0284 (COD).

8. EÖRSI, G. The Hague Conventions of 1964 and the International Sale of Goods. Acta Juridica. 1969, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, pp. 321-354.

9. FERRARI, F. What Sources of Law for Contracts for the International Sale of Goods? Why one has to look beyond the CISG? International Review of Law and Economics. 2005, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 338. CrossRef

10. GARNER, B. A. A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

11. GARRO, A. M. Reconciliation of Legal Traditions in the U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. The International Lawyer. 1989, Vol. 23, pp. 443-483.

12. GARRO, A. - RODRÍGUEZ, J. A. M. (eds.). Use of the UNIDROIT Principles to interpret and supplement domestic contract law. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. CrossRef

13. HAY, P. US-Amerikanischer Recht. 7. überarbeitete und erweiterte Aufl. München: C. H. Beck, 2020.

14. HALEY, J. O. Comparative Contract Law. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.

15. International Institute for the Unification of Private Law - League of Nations. Draft of an International Law of the Sales of Goods. Rome, La Libreria Dello Stato, 1935. (1935 UNIDROIT Draft).

16. JUKIER, R. The Emergence of Specific Performance as a Major Remedy. Quebec Law, Revue du Barreau. 1987, Vol. 47, No 1, pp. 48-72.

17. LANDO, O. - BEALE, H. (eds.). Principles of European Contract Law. Parts I and II. Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2000. CrossRef

18. LANDO, O. - CLIVE, E. - PRÜM, A. - ZIMMERMAN, R. (eds). Principles of European Contract Law. Part III. Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2003.

19. LANDO, H. - ROSE, C. On the enforcement of specific performance in Civil Law Countries. International Review of Law and Economics. 2004, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 473-487. CrossRef

20. MCKENDRICK, E. Contract Law. 10th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. CrossRef

21. OMLOR, S. in: MANKOWSKI, P. (ed.). Commercial Law: Article by Article Commentary. Baden-Baden, Germany, München, Germany, Oxford: Nomos, C. H. Beck, Hart Publishing, 2019.

22. PAUKNEROVÁ, M. The UNIDROIT Principles and Czech Law. In: UNIDROIT (ed.) Eppur si muove: the Age of Uniform Law: essays in honour of Michael Joachim Bonell to celebrate his 70th birthday. Vol. 2. Rome: UNIDROIT, 2016, pp. 1583-1592.

23. "Projet D'Une Loi Uniforme sur la Vente Internationale Des Objets Mobiliers Corporels" and "Draft Uniform Law on International Sales of Goods (Corporeal Movables)". In: L'Unification du Droit = Unification of Law: a general survey of work for the unification of private law (Drafts and Conventions). Rome: UNIDROIT, 1948 (1939 UNIDROIT Draft), pp. 103-159.

24. RABEL, E. A Draft of an International Law of Sales. The University of Chicago Law Review. 1938, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 543-565. CrossRef

25. RABEL, E. Das Recht des Warenkaufs Eine Rechtsvergleichende Darstellung. Band 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1936.

26. SARTORI, F. in: ANTONIOLLI, L. - VENEZIANO, A. (eds.). Principles of European Contract Law and Italian Law. Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2005, pp. 395-400.

27. 2SCHWENZER, I. (ed.). SCHLECHTRIEM & SCHWENZER: Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

28. Statement of the European Law Institute on the Proposal for a Regulation on a Common European Sales Law, COM(2011)635 final. Vienna: European Law Institute, 2012, amended by two supplements published in 2014 and 2015. Online available at:

29. SZLADITS, CH. The Concept of Specific Performance in Civil Law. The American Journal of Comparative Law. 1955, Vol. 4, No. 1-4, pp. 208-234. CrossRef

30. UNCITRAL. Digest of Case Law on the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. Vienna: UNCITRAL Secretariat, Vienna International Centre, 2016.

31. UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts. Rome: UNIDROIT, 2016 (hereafter: UPICC).

32. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, signed at Vienna on 11 April 1980.

33. VOGENAUER, S. Commentary on the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC). 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

34. VON BAR, CH. - CLIVE, E. - SCHULTE-NÖLKE, H. (eds.). Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law: Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR). Volumes I-VI. Full edition. München: Sellier. European Law Publishers, 2009. CrossRef

35. ZHOU, Q. - DIMATTEO, L. A. Three Sales Laws and the Common Law of Contracts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. CrossRef

36. <bez popisu>

Creative Commons License
Specific Performance – and the International Unification of Sales Law is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

230 x 157 mm
periodicity: 4 x per year
print price: 65 czk
ISSN: 0323-0619
E-ISSN: 2336-6478