AUC Geographica (Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geographica) is a scholarly academic journal continuously published since 1966 that publishes research in the broadly defined field of geography: physical geography, geo-ecology, regional, social, political and economic geography, regional development, cartography, geoinformatics, demography and geo-demography.

AUC Geographica also publishes articles that contribute to advances in geographic theory and methodology and address the questions of regional, socio-economic and population policy-making in Czechia.

Periodical twice yearly.
Release dates: June 30, December 31

All articles are licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0), have DOI and are indexed in CrossRef database.

AUC Geographica is covered by the following services: EBSCO, GeoBibline, SCOPUS, Ulrichsweb and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

The journal has been covered in the SCOPUS database since 1975 – today

The journal has been selected for coverage in Clarivate Analytics products and services. Beginning with V. 52 (1) 2017, this publication will be indexed and abstracted in Emerging Sources Citation Index.

The journal has been indexed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MSHE) on the list of scientific journals recommended for authors to publish their articles. ICI World of Journals; Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geographica.

Scopus Journal Metric

SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) (2020): 0.193
SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper) (2020): 0.842
CiteScore (2020): 1.00

The journal is archived in Portico.

AUC GEOGRAPHICA, Vol 56 No 2 (2021), 195–204

Development and state of the art of landscape science in Bulgaria

Jordan Tzvetkov

announced: 06. 09. 2021


The establishment of International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE), European Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE-Europe and European Landscape Convention (2000) contribute and support the exchange of different concepts and methods in the field of landscape science, and also scientific cooperation between European countries. However, the specifics of landscape science in Bulgaria are little known outside the country. This article deals with the development and status of landscape science in Bulgaria. It describes its main stages in the historical development, its main characteristics and makes some general conclusions and critical notes about the future development of landscape science in Bulgaria.

keywords: Bulgaria; landscape science; landscape concepts; landscape methods

references (61)

1. Antrop, M., Van Eetvelde, V. (2017): Landscape Perspectives: The Holistic Nature of Landscape. Dordrecht, Springer. CrossRef

2. Arraes, E.A. (2018): A apreensão sensível da natureza em Goethe e Humboldt. Paisagem E Ambiente 42, 11-22. CrossRef

3. Batakliev, I. (1934): Landscape divisions of Bulgaria. Annual of Sofia Univ., Faculty of History and Philology 30(13), 3-43 (in Bulgarian).

4. Blinnikov, M. (2011): A Geography of Russia and Its Neighbors. New York, The Guilford Press.

5. Bockheim, J., Gennadiyev, A., Hammer, R., Tandarich, J. (2005): Historical development of key concepts in pedology. Geoderma 124(1-2), 23-36. CrossRef

6. Beruchashvili, N. (1986): Four Dimensions of Landscape. Moscow, Misl (in Russian).

7. Beruchashvili, N. (1990): Landscape Geophysics. Moscow, Viyshaya shkola (in Russian).

8. Borisova, B. (2013): Landscape Ecology and Landscape Planning. Sofia, Acad. Press. "Prof. M. Drinov" (in Bulgarian).

9. Brevik, E., Hartemink, A. (2010): Early soil knowledge and the birth and development of soil science. Catena 83(1), 23-33. CrossRef

10. Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Nedkov, S., Müller, F. (2012): Mapping ecosystem service supply, demand and budgets. Ecological Indicators 21, 17-29. CrossRef

11. Buttimer, A. (2012): Alexander von Humboldt and planet earth's green mantle. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography [Online], Epistemology, History, Teaching, doc. 616, online 03 August 2012, CrossRef

12. Cholakova, Z. (2018): Karst and Karst Natural Systems. Sofia, Neofeedback (in Bulgarian).

13. Debarbieux, B. (2012): The various figures of mountains in Humboldt's science and rhetoric. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography [Online], Epistemology, History, Teaching, doc. 618, online 21 August 2012, CrossRef

14. Dokuchaev, V. V. (1949): Collected Works. Moscow, AN SSSR (in Russian).

15. Egerton, F. (2009): A history of the ecological sciences, part 32: Humboldt, nature's geographer. The Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 90(3), 253-282. CrossRef

16. Fortescue, J. (1992): Landscape geochemistry: retrospect and prospect - 1990. Applied Geochemistry 7(1), 1-53. CrossRef

17. Gachechiladze, R., Nikolaishvili, D., Bolashvili, N., Jamaspashvili, N. (2017): Scientific heritage of Professor Nikoloz Beruchashvili (1947-2006). Earth Sciences 6(5-1), 111-122. CrossRef

18. Geneletti, D., Adem Esmail, B., Cortinovis, C., Arany, I., Balzan, M., van Beukering, P., Bicking, S., Borges, P., Borisova, B., Broekx, S., Burkhard, B., Gil, A., Inghe, O., Kopperoinen, L., Kruse, M., Liekens, I., Lowicki, D., Mizgajski, A., Mulder, S., Nedkov, S., Ostergard, H., Picanço, A., Ruskule, A., Santos-Martín, F., Sieber, I., Svensson, J., Vačkářů, D., Veidemane, K. (2020): Ecosystem services mapping and assessment for policy- and decision-making: Lessons learned from a comparative analysis of European case studies. One Ecosystem 5: e53111. CrossRef

19. Gikov, A., Nedkov, S. (2008): Atlas of Contemporary Landscapes of Rhodopes. Project Rhodopes. Project Rhodopes - UN Development Program.

20. Humboldt, A., Bonpland, E. (2009): Essay on the Geography of Plants. Edited by S. Jackson. Translated by S. Romanowski. (First edition Paris, 1805). Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press.

21. Ihtimanski, I., Nedkov, S., Semerdzhieva, L. (2020): Mapping the natural heritage as a source of recreation services at national scale in Bulgaria. One Ecosystem 5: e54621. CrossRef

22. Ivanov, I., Penchev, P., Dimitrov, D. (1970): State of the art, tasks and perspectives of physical geography in Bulgaria. Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society 10, 3-13 (in Bulgarian).

23. Johnson, D., Schaetzl, R. (2015): Differing views of soil and pedogenesis by two masters: Darwin and Dokuchaev. Catena 237-238, 176-189. CrossRef

24. Kasimov, N. (2013): Landscape Ecogeochemistry. Moscow, IP Filimonov (in Russian).

25. Kirkham, B. (2008): Trace elements. In: Chesworth W. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Dordrecht, Springer, 786-790. CrossRef

26. Martin, G. (2005): All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas (4th edn). N. Y., Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press.

27. Miklos, L., Kočicka, E., Izakovičova, Z., Kočicky, D., Špinerova, A., Diviakova, A., Miklosova, V. (2019): Landscape as Geosystem. Cham, Springer. CrossRef

28. Moon, D. (2005): The environmental history of the Russian steppes: Vasilii Dokuchaev and the harvest failure of 1891. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 15, 149-174. CrossRef

29. Nam, K. (2021): Anthropogenic landscapes. Sofia, Univ. Press "St. K. Ohridski" (in Bulgarian).

30. Nikolova, N., Gikov, A., Kotsev, T., Zhelezov, G. (1997): Landscapes investigations in the crests Chernatitsa and Mursalitsa of the Milddle Rhodopes. In: Spiridonov H. (ed.). Geography Today. Sofia, Filvest, 95-109 (in Bulgarian).

31. Nedkov, S. (2011): Landscape structure and ecosystem services of Etropole municipally. In: Zhelezov G. (ed.). Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe. Dordrecht, Springer, 85-94. CrossRef

32. Nedkov, S., Burkhard, B. (2012): Flood regulating ecosystem services - Mapping supply and demand, in the Etropole municipality, Bulgaria. Ecological Indicators 21, 67-79. CrossRef

33. Nedkov, S., Borisova, B., Koulov, B., Zhiyanski, M., Bratanova-Doncheva, S., Nikolova, M., Kroumova, J. (2018a): Towards integrated mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services in Bulgaria: The Central Balkan case study. One Ecosystem 3: e25428. CrossRef

34. Nedkov, S., Zhiyanski, M., Borisova, B., Nikolova, M., Bratanova-Doncheva, S., Semerdzieva, L., Ihtimanski, I., Nikolov, P., Aidarova, Z. (2018b): A geospatial approach to mapping and assessment of urban ecosystem services in Bulgaria. European Journal of Geography 9(4), 34-50.

35. Ostaszewska, K. (2010): The geochemical landscape concept and its usefulness in geography. Miscellanea Geographica 14, 5-12. CrossRef

36. Oldfield, J., Shaw, D. (2016): The Development of Russian Environmental Thought: Scientific and Geographical Perspectives of the Natural Environment. New York, Routledge. CrossRef

37. Penin, R. (1997): Practical Handbook of Landscape Geochemistry. Sofia, Univ. Press "St. K. Ohridski" (in Bulgarian).

38. Penin, R. (2003): Landscape geochemistry: A priority scientific branch in detection and solving environmental problems. In: Konteva M., Penin R. (eds). Thirty Years Department of Landscape Science and Environmental Protection. Sofia, Maleo-63-Varna, 89-94 (in Bulgarian).

39. Penin, R. (2007): Physical Geography and Landscape Ecology: A Dictionary of Terms. Sofia, Bulvest 2000 (in Bulgarian).

40. Penin, R., Konteva, M. (eds). (2013): Forty Years Department of "Landscape Science and Environmental Protection". Sofia, Bulvest 2000 (in Bulgarian).

41. Penkov, I. (1943): Cultural landscape. Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society, 10, 63-126 (in Bulgarian).

42. Perelman, A., Kasimov, N. (1999): Landscape Geochemistry. Moscow, Astreya-2000 (in Russian).

43. Petrov, P. (1979): A classification system of the landscapes in Bulgaria. Annual of Sofia Univ., Faculty of Geology and Geography 70(2), 159-181 (in Bulgarian).

44. Petrov, P. (1990): Landscape Science. Sofia, Sofia Univ. Press (in Bulgarian).

45. Petrov, G. (2011): Practical Handbook of Landscape Science. Veliko Tarnovo, Univ. Press "St. Kiril and Metodii" (in Bulgarian).

46. Prodanova, H., Petrova, M. (2020): Assoc. Prof. PhD Nikola Todorov (1955-2018) - A life dedicated to geography. Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society 42, 115-131 (in Bulgarian).

47. Rodrigo-Comino, J., Senciales, J., Cerda, A., Brevik, E. (2017): The multidisciplinary origin of soil geography: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 117, 114-123. CrossRef

48. Rudnick, R., Gao, S. (2014): Composition of the continental crust. In: Holland, H., Turekian, K. (eds). Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd edn) 4, 1-51. CrossRef

49. Salminen, R. (ed.). (2005): Geochemical Atlas of Europe. Part 1: Background Information, Methodology and Maps. Espoo, Geological Survey of Finland,

50. Shaw, D., Oldfield, J. (2007): Landscape science: A Russian geographical tradition. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97(1), 111-126. CrossRef

51. Simensen, T., Halvorsen, R., Erikstad, L. (2018): Methods for landscape characterisation and mapping: A systematic review. Land Use Policy 75, 557-569. CrossRef

52. Todorov, N., Velchev, A. (2014): Landscapes of Bulgaria: Spatial Structure. Veliko Tarnovo, Ivis (in Bulgarian).

53. Tzvetkov, J. (2017): A web-map of the landscapes of Vitosha Mountain and the development of landscape science in Bulgaria. Forum geographic 16(2), 126-131. CrossRef

54. Velchev, A., Todorov, N., Assenov, A., Beruchashvili, N. (1992): A landscape map of Bulgaria at scale 1:500 000. Annual of Sofia Univ., Faculty of Geology and Geography 84(2), 85-107 (in Bulgarian).

55. Velchev, A., Petrov, P. (eds). (1993): Physical Geography and Landscape Researches in the Vicinity of Zemen Stationary. Sofia, Univ. Press "St. K. Ohridski" (in Bulgarian).

56. Velchev, A., Penin, R., Todorov, N., Konteva, M. (2011): Landscape Geography of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulvest 2000 (in Bulgarian).

57. Wulf, A. (2015): The Invention of Nature: Alexander von Humboldt's New World. N. Y., Vintage Books.

58. Yakushko, P., Martsinkevich, G., Petrov, P., Velchev, A. (1983): Landscape Anthropogenisation in Belarus and Bulgaria. Sofia, Sofia Univ. Press (in Russian).

59. Yu, H., Li, R., Wang, G., Wang, Q. (2019): Current development of landscape geochemistry with support of geospatial technologies: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49(9), 745-790. CrossRef

60. Zhelezov, G. (2020): Prof. Ivan Batakliev - Builder of the geographical sciences in Bulgaria. Journal of the Bulgarian Geographical Society 42, 18-23 (in Bulgarian).

61. Zhelezov, G., Nedkov, S. (2019): Development of the landscape researches in Bulgaria. - Problems of Geography 2, 71-85 (in Bulgarian).

Creative Commons License
Development and state of the art of landscape science in Bulgaria is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

210 x 297 mm
published: 2 x per year
print price: 200 czk
ISSN: 0300-5402
E-ISSN: 2336-1980