AUC Geographica (Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geographica) is a scholarly academic journal continuously published since 1966 that publishes research in the broadly defined field of geography: physical geography, geo-ecology, regional, social, political and economic geography, regional development, cartography, geoinformatics, demography and geo-demography.

AUC Geographica also publishes articles that contribute to advances in geographic theory and methodology and address the questions of regional, socio-economic and population policy-making in Czechia.

Periodical twice yearly.
Release dates: June 30, December 31

All articles are licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0), have DOI and are indexed in CrossRef database.

AUC Geographica is covered by the following services: EBSCO, GeoBibline, SCOPUS, Ulrichsweb and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

The journal has been covered in the SCOPUS database since 1975 – today

The journal has been selected for coverage in Clarivate Analytics products and services. Beginning with V. 52 (1) 2017, this publication will be indexed and abstracted in Emerging Sources Citation Index.

The journal has been indexed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MSHE) on the list of scientific journals recommended for authors to publish their articles. ICI World of Journals; Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geographica.

Scopus Journal Metric

SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) (2020): 0.193
SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper) (2020): 0.842
CiteScore (2020): 1.00

The journal is archived in Portico.


Factors in the differentiation of regional mortality in developed countries

Tereza Pachlová

published online: 23. 05. 2023


The aim of this article is to discuss factors that influence the distribution and differences in mortality between both regions and subpopulations in developed countries. The article provides an outline of basic theories that attempt to explain socioeconomic differences in mortality. A range of socioeconomic factors is analysed from both the micro-level and macro-level perspectives. Based on the study of the relevant literature, it was determined that more privileged groups enjoy better health and longer lives. A strong association between socioeconomic factors and total mortality and mortality by the cause of death was revealed at both the individual and aggregated levels. The relationship between socioeconomic variables and health status and mortality is explained via various mechanisms through which this association arises. Socioeconomic variables that act to influence health status and mortality have been shown to be strongly interrelated. These factors, in turn, impact the lifestyle and psychological state of individuals. Existing socioeconomic health and mortality determinants represent one of the main problems and challenges for the public health sectors in both more and less developed countries.

keywords: mortality; regional differentiation; economic factors; social factors; cultural factors

references (114)

1. Bartley, M. (1994): Unemployment and ill health: understanding the relationship. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 48(4), 333-337. CrossRef

2. Bartley, M., Owen, C. (1996): Relation between socioeconomic status, employment, and health during economic change, 1973-93. BMJ: British Medical Journal 313(7055), 445-449. CrossRef

3. Bengtsson, T., Van Poppel, F. (2011): Socioeconomic inequalities in death from past to present: An introduction. Explorations in Economic History 48(3), 343-356. CrossRef

4. Blanchard, T. C., Bartkowski, J. P., Matthews, T. L., Kerley, K. R. (2008): Faith, morality and mortality: The ecological impact of religion on population health. Social Forces 86(4), 1591-1620. CrossRef

5. Blomgren, J., Martikainen, P., Mäkelä, P., Valkonen, T. (2004): The effects of regional characteristics on alcohol-related mortality - a register-based multilevel analysis of 1.1 million men. Social Science and Medicine 58(12), 2523-2535. CrossRef

6. Brenner, M. H. (2016): The impact of unemployment on heart disease and stroke mortality in European Union countries. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

7. Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C. (2002): Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. American Economic Review 92(5), 1308-1334. CrossRef

8. Chetty, R., Stepner, M., Abraham, S., Lin, S., Scuderi, B., Turner, N., Bergeron, A., Cutler, D. (2016): The association between income and life expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. JAMA 315(16), 1750-1766. CrossRef

9. Cutler, D. M., Meara, E. (2001): Changes in the age distribution of mortality over the 20th century. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. CrossRef

10. Cutler, D. M., Deaton, A., Lleras-Muney, A. (2006): The determinants of mortality. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(3), 97-120. CrossRef

11. Diez, R. (2002): A glossary for multilevel analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56(8), 588-594. CrossRef

12. Dockery, D. W., Pope, C. A., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., Ferris, B. G, Speizer, F. E. (1993): An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329(24), 1753-1759. CrossRef

13. Dow, W. H., Rehkopf, D. H. (2010): Socioeconomic gradients in health in international and historical context. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186(1), 24-36. CrossRef

14. Dupre, M. E., Franzese, A. T., Parrado, E. A. (2006): Religious attendance and mortality: Implications for the black-white mortality crossover. Demography 43(1), 141-164. CrossRef

15. Dwyer-Lindgren, L., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Stubbs, R. W., Morozoff, C., Mackenbach, J. P., van Lenthe, F. J., Mokdad, A. H., Murray, C. J. L. (2017): Inequalities in life expectancy among US counties, 1980 to 2014: Temporal trends and key drivers. JAMA Internal Medicine 177(7), 1003-1011. CrossRef

16. Ellison, C. G., Levin, J. S. (1998): The religion-health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions. Health Education and Behavior 25(6), 700-720. CrossRef

17. European Commission (2023): Public Health - Social determinants. Retrieved February 4, 2023, from

18. Finkelstein, M. M., Jerrett, M., DeLuca, P., Finkelstein, N., Verma, D. K., Chapman, K., Sears, M. R. (2003): Relation between income, air pollution and mortality: a cohort study. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) 169(5), 397-402.

19. Frankel, S., Gunnell, D. J., Peters, T. J., Maynard, M., Smith, G. D. (1998): Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: The Boyd Orr Cohort Study. BMJ: British Medical Journal 316(7130), 499-504. CrossRef

20. Fukuda, Y., Nakamura, K., Takano, T. (2004): Wide range of socioeconomic factors associated with mortality among cities in Japan. Health Promotion International 19(2), 177-187. CrossRef

21. Gavurova, B., Khouri, S., Kovac, V., Ferkova, M. (2020): Exploration of influence of socioeconomic determinants on mortality in the European Union. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(13), 1-21. CrossRef

22. Harrison, L., Gardiner, E. (1999): Do the rich really die young? Alcohol‐related mortality and social class in Great Britain, 1988-94. Addiction 94(12), 1871-1880. CrossRef

23. Hirokawa, K., Tsutusmi, A., Kayaba, K. (2006): Impacts of educational level and employment status on mortality for Japanese women and men: the Jichi Medical School cohort study. European Journal of Epidemiology 21(9), 641-651. CrossRef

24. Hoek, G., Brunekreef, B., Goldbohm, S., Fischer, P., van den Brandt, P. A. (2002): Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. The Lancet 360(9341), 1203-1209. CrossRef

25. Holt, J. B., Miller, J. W., Naimi, T. S., Sui, D. Z. (2006): Religious affiliation and alcohol consumption in the United States. Geographical Review 96(4), 523-542. CrossRef

26. House, J. S. (2002): Understanding Social Factors and Inequalities in Health: 20th Century Progress and 21st Century Prospects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 43(2), 125-142. CrossRef

27. Hu, Y., Goldman, N. (1990): Mortality differentials by marital status: an international comparison. Demography 27(2), 233-250. CrossRef

28. Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Eberstein, I. W. (1998): Sociodemographic differentials in adult mortality: A review of analytic approaches. Population and Development Review 24(3), 553-578. CrossRef

29. Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Nam, C. B., Ellison, C. G. (1999): Religious involvement and US adult mortality. Demography 36(2), 273-285. CrossRef

30. Iversen, L. (1989): Unemployment and mortality. Stress Medicine 5(2), 85-92. CrossRef

31. Johnson, N. J., Sorlie, P. D., Backlund, E. (1999): The impact of specific occupation on mortality in the US National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Demography 36(3), 355-367. CrossRef

32. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., Lochner, K., Prothrow-Stith, D. (1997): Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. American Journal of Public Health 87(9), 1491-1498. CrossRef

33. Katsouyanni, K., Touloumi, G., Samoli, E., Gryparis, A., Le Tertre, A., Monopolis, Y., Rossi, G., Zmirou, D., Ballester, F., Boumghar, A., Anderson, H. R., Wojtyniak, B., Paldy, A., Braunstein, R., Pekkanen, J., Schindler, C., Schwartz, J. (2001): Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project. Epidemiology 12(5), 521-531. CrossRef

34. Keil, J. E., Sutherland, S. E., Knapp, R. G., Tyroler, H. A. (1992): Does equal socioeconomic status in black and white men mean equal risk of mortality? American Journal of Public Health 82(8), 1133-1136. CrossRef

35. Kibele, E., Scholz, R., Shkolnikov, V. M. (2008): Low migrant mortality in Germany for men aged 65 and older: fact or artifact? European Journal of Epidemiology 23(6), 389-393. CrossRef

36. Kitagawa, E. M., Hauser, P. M. (1973): Differential mortality in the United States: A study in socioeconomic epidemiology. Cambrige: Harvard University Press. CrossRef

37. Klotz, J., Göllner, T., Gumprecht, N. (2019): Sozioökonomische Determinanten der Mortalität hochaltriger Männer in Österreich. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 52(2), 130-138. CrossRef

38. Kopp, M., Skrabski, Á., Szántó, Z., Siegrist, J. (2006): Psychosocial determinants of premature cardiovascular mortality differences within Hungary. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60(9), 782-788. CrossRef

39. Kravdal, Ø. (2007): A fixed-effects multilevel analysis of how community family structure affects individual mortality in Norway. Demography 44(3), 519-537. CrossRef

40. Kravdal, Ø. (2010): The importance of community education for individual mortality: a fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal multilevel data on 1.7 million Norwegian women and men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 64(12), 1029-1035. CrossRef

41. Krueger, P. M., Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., LeClere, F. B., Huie, S. A. B. (2003): Socioeconomic status and age: The effect of income sources and portfolios on US adult mortality. Sociological Forum 18(3), 465-482. CrossRef

42. La Cour, P., Avlund, K., Schultz-Larsen, K. (2006): Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914. Social Science and Medicine 62(1), 157-164. CrossRef

43. Lancaster, G., Green, M. (2002): Deprivation, ill‐health and the ecological fallacy. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 165(2), 263-278. CrossRef

44. Law, M. R., Morris, J. K. (1998): Why is mortality higher in poorer areas and in more northern areas of England and Wales? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 52(6), 344-352. CrossRef

45. Liang, J., Bennett, J. M., Sugisawa, H., Kobayashi, E., Fukaya, T. (2003): Gender differences in old age mortality: Roles of health behavior and baseline health status. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56(6), 572-582. CrossRef

46. Link, B. G., Phelan, J. (1995): Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 35, 80-94. CrossRef

47. Lynch, J. W., Smith, G. D., Kaplan, G. A., House, J. S. (2000): Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ: British Medical Journal 320(7243), 1200-1204. CrossRef

48. Mackenbach, J. P., Looman, C. W., Kunst, A. E. (1989): Geographic variation in the onset of decline of male ischemic heart disease mortality in The Netherlands. American Journal of Public Health 79(12), 1621-1627. CrossRef

49. Mackenbach, J. P., Bouvier-Colle, M. H., Jougla, E. (1990): "Avoidable" mortality and health services: a review of aggregate data studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 44(2), 106-111. CrossRef

50. Mackenbach, J. P., Kunst, A. E., Looman, C. W. (1991): Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 45(3), 231-237. CrossRef

51. Mackenbach, J. P., Kunst, A. E., Groenhof, F., Borgan, J. K., Costa, G., Faggiano, F., Józan, P., Martikainen, P., Rychataříková, J., Valkonen, T. (1999). Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study. American Journal of Public Health 89(12), 1800-1806. CrossRef

52. Mackenbach, J. P., Stirbu, I., Roskam, A. J. R., Schaap, M. M., Menvielle, G., Leinsalu, M., Kunst, A. E. (2008): Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. New England journal of medicine 358(23), 2468-2481. CrossRef

53. Mackenbach, J. P., Kulhánová, I., Bopp, M., Deboosere, P., Eikemo, T. A., Hoffmann, R., Kulik, M. C., Leinsalu, M., Martikainen, P., Menvielle, G., Regidor, E., Wojtyniak, B., Östergren, O., Lundberg, O. (2015): Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: A test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health. Social Science and Medicine 127, 51-62. CrossRef

54. Mäkelä, P., Valkonen, T., Martelin, T. (1997): Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study. BMJ: British Medical Journal 315(7102), 211-216. CrossRef

55. Marinacci, C., Spadea, T., Biggeri, A., Demaria, M., Caiazzo, A., Costa, G. (2004): The role of individual and contextual socioeconomic circumstances on mortality: analysis of time variations in a city of north west Italy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58(3), 199-207. CrossRef

56. Marmot, M. (2005): Social determinants of health inequalities. The Lancet 365(9464), 1099-1104. CrossRef

57. Martikainen, P. T. (1990): Unemployment and mortality among Finnish men, 1981-5. BMJ: British Medical Journal 301(6749), 407-411. CrossRef

58. Martikainen, P., Kauppinen, T. M., Valkonen, T. (2003): Effects of the characteristics of neighbourhoods and the characteristics of people on cause specific mortality: a register based follow up study of 252 000 men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57(3), 210-217. CrossRef

59. Martikainen, P., Martelin, T., Nihtilä, E., Majamaa, K., Koskinen, S. (2005): Differences in mortality by marital status in Finland from 1976 to 2000: analyses of changes in marital-status distributions, socio-demographic and household composition, and cause of death. Population studies 59(1), 99-115. CrossRef

60. McFadden, E., Luben, R., Wareham, N., Bingham, S., Khaw, K. T. (2008): Occupational social class, educational level, smoking and body mass index, and cause-specific mortality in men and women: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort. European Journal of Epidemiology 23(8), 511-522. CrossRef

61. Menvielle, G., Luce, D., Geoffroy-Perez, B., Chastang, J. F., Leclerc, A. (2005): Social inequalities and cancer mortality in France, 1975-1990. Cancer Causes and Control 16(5), 501-513. CrossRef

62. Metsä-Simola, N., Martikainen, P. (2013): The short-term and long-term effects of divorce on mortality risk in a large Finnish cohort, 1990-2003. Population Studies 67(1), 97-110. CrossRef

63. Muller, A. (2002): Education, income inequality, and mortality: a multiple regression analysis. BMJ: British Medical Journal 324, 23-25. CrossRef

64. Murphy, M., Grundy, E., Kalogirou, S. (2007): The increase in marital status differences in mortality up to the oldest age in seven European countries, 1990-99. Population Studies 61(3), 287-298. CrossRef

65. Musick, M. A., House, J. S., Williams, D. R. (2004): Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45(2), 198-213. CrossRef

66. Nakaya, T., Dorling, D. (2005): Geographical inequalities of mortality by income in two developed island countries: a cross-national comparison of Britain and Japan. Social Science and Medicine 60(12), 2865-2875. CrossRef

67. Nylen, L., Voss, M., Floderus, B. (2001): Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: a study based on data from the Swedish twin registry. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58(1), 52-57. CrossRef

68. Oman, D., Kurata, J. H., Strawbridge, W. J., Cohen, R. D. (2002). Religious attendance and cause of death over 31 years. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 32(1), 69-89. CrossRef

69. O'Reilly, G., O'Reilly, D., Rosato, M., Connolly, S. (2007): Urban and rural variations in morbidity and mortality in Northern Ireland. BMC Public Health 7(1), 1-6. CrossRef

70. O'Reilly, D., Rosato, M. (2008): Religious affiliation and mortality in Northern Ireland: beyond Catholic and Protestant. Social Science and Medicine 66(7), 1637-1645. CrossRef

71. Osler, M., Andersen, A. N., Due, P., Lund, R., Damsgaard, M. T., Holstein, B. E. (2003): Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57(9), 681-686. CrossRef

72. Osler, M., Madsen, M., Andersen, A. M. N., Avlund, K., Mcgue, M., Jeune, B., Christensen, K. (2009): Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age? Social Science and Medicine 68(8), 1425-1431. CrossRef

73. Pensola, T., Martikainen, P. (2004): Life-course experiences and mortality by adult social class among young men. Social Science and Medicine 58(11), 2149-2170. CrossRef

74. Peters, A., Skorkovsky, J., Kotesovec, F., Brynda, J., Spix, C., Wichmann, H. E., Heinrich, J. (2000): Associations between mortality and air pollution in central Europe. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(4), 283-287. CrossRef

75. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., Diez-Roux, A., Kawachi, I., Levin, B. (2004): "Fundamental causes" of social inequalities in mortality: A test of the theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45(3), 265-285. CrossRef

76. Popov, V. (2009): Mortality crisis in Russia revisited: evidence from cross-regional comparison. Munich Personal RePEc Archive. MPRA Paper No. 21311.

77. Potter, L. B. (1991): Socioeconomic determinants of white and black males' life expectancy differentials, 1980. Demography 28(2), 303-321. CrossRef

78. Powell, L. H., Shahabi, L., Thoresen, C. E. (2003): Religion and spirituality: Linkages to physical health. American Psychologist 58(1), 36-52. CrossRef

79. Preston, S. H.; Taubman, P. (1994): Socioeconomic Differences in Adult Mortality and Health Status. In Martin L. G; Prestion, S. H. (1994): Demography of Aging. Washington: National Academy Press.

80. Rāsānen, J., Kauhanen, J., Lakka, T. A., Kaplan, G. A., Salonen, J. T. (1996): Religious affiliation and all-cause mortality: a prospective population study in middle-aged men in eastern Finland. International Journal of Epidemiology 25(6), 1244-1249. CrossRef

81. Razum, O., Zeeb, H., Akgün, H. S., Yilmaz, S. (1998): Low overall mortality of Turkish residents in Germany persists and extends into a second generation: merely a healthy migrant effect? Tropical Medicine and International Health 3(4), 297-303. CrossRef

82. Ricketts, T. C., Holmes, G. M. (2007): Mortality and physician supply: does region hold the key to the paradox? Health Services Research 42(6), 2233-2251. CrossRef

83. Robinson, W. S. (1950): Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review 15(3), 351-357. CrossRef

84. Rogers, R. G. (1995): Marriage, sex, and mortality. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57(2), 515-526. CrossRef

85. Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., Nam, C. B., Peters, K. (1996). Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting ethnic mortality by cause. Social Forces 74(4), 1419-1438. CrossRef

86. Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., Krueger, P. M., Pampel, F. C. (2005). Mortality attributable to cigarette smoking in the United States. Population and Development Review 31(2), 259-292. CrossRef

87. Rogot, E., Sorlie, P. D., Johnson, N. J. (1992): Life expectancy by employment status, income, and education in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Public Health Reports 107(4), 457-461.

88. Rój, J., Jankowiak, M. (2021): Socioeconomic determinants of health and their unequal distribution in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(20), 1-20. CrossRef

89. Rosicova, K., Geckova, A. M., van Dijk, J. P., Rosic, M., Zezula, I., Groothoff, J. W. (2009): Socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as determinants of regional mortality rates in Slovakia. International Journal of Public Health 54(4), 274-282. CrossRef

90. Sabates, R., Feinstein, L. (2006): The role of education in the uptake of preventative health care: the case of cervical screening in Britain. Social Science and Medicine 62(12), 2998-3010. CrossRef

91. Samet, J. M., Zeger, S. L., Dominici, F., Curriero, F., Coursac, I., Dockery, D. W., Schwartz, J., Zanobetti, A. (2000): The national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Part II: morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the United States. Research Report 94. Cambridge: Health Effect Institut.

92. Schneiderman, N. (2004): Psychosocial, behavioral, and biological aspects of chronic diseases. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13(6), 247-251. CrossRef

93. Schwartz, S. (1994): The fallacy of the ecological fallacy: the potential misuse of a concept and the consequences. American Journal of Public Health 84(5), 819-824. CrossRef

94. Sivertsen, B. (2006): Global ambient air pollution concentrations and trends. In WHO (2006): Air quality guidelines: global update 2005. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

95. Skalická, V., Van Lenthe, F., Bambra, C., Krokstad, S., Mackenbach, J. (2009): Material, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality: evidence from the HUNT study. International Journal of Epidemiology 38(5), 1272-1284. CrossRef

96. Sloggett, A., Joshi, H. (1994): Higher mortality in deprived areas: community or personal disadvantage? BMJ: British Medical Journal 309(6967), 1470-1474. CrossRef

97. Smith, G. D., Hart, C., Blane, D., Hole, D. (1998a): Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause-specific adult mortality: prospective observational study. BMJ: British Medical Journal 316(7145), 1631-1635. CrossRef

98. Smith, G. D., Hart, C., Hole, D., MacKinnon, P., Gillis, C., Watt, G., Blane, D., Hawthorne, V. (1998b): Education and occupational social class: which is the more important indicator of mortality risk? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 52(3), 153-160. CrossRef

99. Smith, J. P. (1999): Healthy bodies and thick wallets: the dual relation between health and economic status. Journal of Economic perspectives 13(2), 145-166. CrossRef

100. Spijker, J. J. A. (2014): Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in Europe: Validation of recent models using the latest available data and short-term forecasts. In Anson, J., Luy, M. (2014): Mortality in an International Perspective. Cham: Springer. CrossRef

101. Steenland, K., Burnett, C., Lalich, N., Ward, E., Hurrell, J. (2003): Dying for work: the magnitude of US mortality from selected causes of death associated with occupation. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43(5), 461-482. CrossRef

102. Stewart, J. M. (2001): The impact of health status on the duration of unemployment spells and the implications for studies of the impact of unemployment on health status. Journal of Health Economics 20(5), 781-796. CrossRef

103. Stocks, P. (1938): The effects of occupation and of its accompanying environment on mortality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 101(4), 669-708. CrossRef

104. Sundquist, J., Johansson, S. E. (1997): Indicators of socio-economic position and their relation to mortality in Sweden. Social Science and Medicine 45(12), 1757-1766. CrossRef

105. Tillmann, T., Pikhart, H., Peasey, A., Kubinova, R., Pajak, A., Tamosiunas, A., Malyutina, S., Steptoe, A., Kivimäki, M., Marmot, M., Bobak, M. (2017): Psychosocial and socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe: A multicentre prospective cohort study. PLoS Medicine 14(12), 1-20. CrossRef

106. Turrell, G., Kavanagh, A., Draper, G., Subramanian, S. V. (2007): Do places affect the probability of death in Australia? A multilevel study of area-level disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and all-cause mortality, 1998-2000. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 61(1), 13-19. CrossRef

107. Uitenbroek, D. G., Verhoeff, A. P. (2002): Life expectancy and mortality differences between migrant groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Social Science and Medicine 54(9), 1379-1388. CrossRef

108. Van Hooijdonk, C., Droomers, M., Deerenberg, I. M., Mackenbach, J. P., Kunst, A. E. (2008): Higher mortality in urban neighbourhoods in The Netherlands: who is at risk? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62(6), 499-505. CrossRef

109. Van Lenthe, F. J., Borrell, L. N., Costa, G., Roux, A. D., Kauppinen, T. M., Marinacci, C., Martikainen, P., Regidor, E., Stafford, M., Valkonen, T. (2005): Neighbourhood unemployment and all cause mortality: a comparison of six countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(3), 231-237. CrossRef

110. Van Oort, F. V., van Lenthe, F. J., Mackenbach, J. P. (2005): Material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors in the explanation of educational inequalities in mortality in The Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59(3), 214-220. CrossRef

111. Vescio, M. F., Smith, G. D., Giampaoli, S. (2003): Socio-economic-position overall and cause-specific mortality in an Italian rural population. European Journal of Epidemiology 18(11), 1051-1058. CrossRef

112. WHO (2020): Basic Documents: Forty-ninth edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.

113. Williams, D. R., Mohammed, S. A., Leavell, J., Collins, C. (2010): Race, socioeconomic status, and health: complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186, 69-101. CrossRef

114. Winkleby, M. A., Jatulis, D. E., Frank, E., Fortmann, S. P. (1992): Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6), 816-820. CrossRef

Creative Commons License
Factors in the differentiation of regional mortality in developed countries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

210 x 297 mm
periodicity: 2 x per year
print price: 200 czk
ISSN: 0300-5402
E-ISSN: 2336-1980