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From Iberian Romani to Iberian Para-Romani Varieties

From Iberian Romani to Iberian Para-Romani Varieties

Krinková, Zuzana

subjects: linguistics

paperback, 272 pp., 1. edition
published: 2015
ISBN: 978-80-246-2936-0
recommended price: 350 czk



The language contact of the inflectional Romani and Spanish, Catalan and other languages of the Iberian Peninsula began in the first half of the 15th century. The long-term and immediate contact between Romani and the language of the majority in several locations in Europe resulted in the emergence of what are known as the Para-Romani varieties – mixed languages which predominantly make use of the grammar of the surrounding language, while at least partly retaining the Romani-derived vocabulary. In the Iberian Peninsula, several Para-Romani varieties emerged. The process of their phonological, morphological and lexical evolution from the inflectional Iberian Romani is described in this book. In the opinion of the author, the original form of the Iberian Romani of the 15th century was similar to the "Early Romani" of the Byzantine period, which is thought to have ended by the 14th century when the Romani language started to disperse throughout Europe. The influence of Spanish (and other languages of the Iberian Peninsula) is evident not only in the morphology and syntax, but also in the phonology and semantics of the Iberian Para-Romani varieties. On the other hand, the Romani elements preserved in these varieties show conservative features as well as specific innovations, many of which can hardly be attributed to language contact. The description of the Iberian Para-Romani varieties is based on an extensive body of language material dated between the 17th and 21st centuries and also draws attention to some language phenomena in these varieties which, until now, have not previously been described.

table of contents


1.1 Proto-Romani, Early Romani, Common Romani
1.2 Classification of Romani Dialects
1.3 Para-Romani Varieties
1.3.1 Delimitation of Para-Romani Varieties
1.3.2 Language Structure of Para-Romani Varieties
1.3.3 Genesis of Para-Romani Varieties
1.3.4 Examples of Para-Romani Varieties

2.1 The History of Romani Language in the Iberian Peninsula
2.2 Classification of the Iberian Romani Dialect and Diversification of Iberian Para-Romani Varieties
2.3 Present Situation of Iberian Para-Romani Varieties
2.3.1 Caló
2.3.2 Basque Para-Romani
2.3.3 Catalan Para-Romani

3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Survey of Sources
3.2.1 The Sources Needed when Studying Caló
3.2.2 Sources Needed when Studying Catalan (Para-)Romani
3.2.3 The Sources Needed when Studying Basque Para-Romani
3.2.4 The Sources Needed when Studying Brazilian Para-Romani

4 Linguistic Description of Iberian Para-Romani Varieties
4.1 Several Comments on Orthography and Phonetic Transcription
4.1.1 Orthographic Peculiarities of Spanish Caló
4.1.2 Orthographic Peculiarities of Catalan (Para-)Romani
4.1.3 Orthographic Peculiarities of Basque (Para-)Romani
4.2 Phonology
4.2.1 Vowels
4.2.2 Glides and Diphthongs
4.2.3 Consonants
4.2.4 Sonorants
4.2.5 Consonant Clusters
4.3 Sporadic Sound Changes
4.3.1 Prothesis and Apheresis
4.3.2 Epenthesis
4.3.3 Epithesis
4.3.4 Syncope
4.3.5 Apocope of Consonants and Syllables
4.3.6 Vowel Shifts and Alternations
4.3.7 Consonant Alternations
4.3.8 Metathesis
4.3.9 Substitution of Consonants in Consonant Clusters and in Final Position of the Word
4.3.10 Palatalisation of /di/, /ti/, /ni/, /li/
4.3.11 Voice Opposition
4.3.12 Gemination
4.3.13 Contamination
4.4 Reflection of Romani Morphology in Iberian (Para-)Romani Varieties
4.4.1 Nominal Morphology
4.4.2 Verbal Morphology
4.5 Several Notes on Syntax
4.5.1 The Noun Phrase
4.5.2 The Verb Phrase
4.5.3 Possessive Construction
4.5.4 Negation
4.6 Vocabulary
4.6.1 General Issues of Romani Vocabulary
4.6.2 The Issue of Iberian Para-Romani Vocabulary
4.6.3 Semantic Domains of Inherited Lexicon and their Representation in Iberian (Para-)Romani Varieties
4.6.4 Preserved Loanwords in Iberian (Para-)Romani Varieties

Index of Languages and Linguistic Terms
Appendix: Survey of Romani Etymologies in Iberian (Para-)Romani Varieties